Bible Study, Doctrine & Disciplines of the Bible Series, Theological Study, Theology

Doctrine & Disciplines of the Bible, Part Eight

The Hard Work of Bible Study

In Part Seven, Read the Bible Well, we considered the spiritual discipline of reading the Bible, with primary focus on the importance of context. But in order to further deepen our relationship with God, we need to fall in love with Him as the author of the Scriptures, while in the midst of the hard work of Bible study. As Christians, we have the opportunity to experience joy of personal discovery first-hand as God’s Holy Spirit illumines truth. And just as the Word is used in conversion, so it is that the Bible is a critical instrument in our growth.  

Charles Spurgeon penned, “Do you know what it is to have a text leap out of the Scriptures upon you, and carry you away? This special energy and flash of truth is always memorable. How often have the waves of this sea of truth been phosphorescent before my eyes—a sea of glass mingled with fire, of which the spray has dashed over me and set my soul on flame!”

Godly wisdom is the ability to see life from God’s perspective and react or respond to it with His mind. Because Scripture is the primary means of spiritual growth, immersing ourselves in the Word of God is the pathway to gaining the mind of Christ. After all, our aim as believers should be to be like Jesus. This is why God gave us the Bible. Charles Spurgeon penned, “Bible study is the metal that makes a Christian; this is the strong meat on which holy men are nourished; this is that which makes the bone and sinew of men who keep God’s way in defiance of every adversary.” The value of Bible study depends on this: Are we willing to work at it?

  • John 14:16-17; 16:12-15
  • Romans 8:28-30; 2 Corinthians 3:18; Colossians 3:10
  • 1 Corinthians 2:9-16
  • 2 Timothy 2:7
  • Hebrews 5:11-14
  • 1 Peter 2:2

Read John 14:16-17 and John 16:12-15. What the disciples could not bear then, they would need to understand afterwards. How does this passage say the Holy Spirit would act (not as a force but as a person) to their benefit? How might this apply to the believer today in her Bible study?

Paraphrase what you learn in Romans 8:28-30 with 2 Corinthians 3:18 and Colossians 3:10.

In 1 Corinthians 2:9-16, Paul reasons that no one outside God can know what takes place within God, nobody but the Spirit of God. While ascribing full deity to the Spirit, He knows God from the inside. Because the Spirit who reveals is truly God, in your own words how would you describe (vs. 13-14) what He reveals to the believer in Bible study? How would this differ from what a nonbeliever might glean from study (vs. 16)? 

Referring to the Hebrews 5:11-14 passage, it is noticeable here that a direct relationship is assumed between spiritual condition and understanding. How might this apply to Bible study?

The Christian woman should be aware that many things are published and marketed under the guise of a “Bible study.” She should be cautious enough to discern whether or not material is psychology based, designed to make women feel good about themselves, or actually God honoring. Might it be possible to “do” a Bible study with nothing more than your Bible, pen, and paper? Support your answer.

If we find Bible study to be hard work, as some Christians suggest, then we cannot be very spiritual. Many people are attracted to something more immediate, as if there would be direct, no need to study, revelation to claim. The Scriptures are not disclosed to lazy minds and hearts.

Yet, His riches are free….but not cheap. 

Like any other discipline in life, Bible study’s profits are in proportion to how much effort is made. “I have little confidence in those persons who speak of having received direct revelations from the Lord, as though he appeared otherwise than by and through the gospel. His word is so full, so perfect, that for God to make any fresh revelation to you or me is quite needless. To do so would be to put a dishonour upon the perfection of that word.” writes Spurgeon. The Bible also gives the only guidelines to follow to present ourselves to God in a manner approved of by Him. He tells us that all Scripture is profitable. According to Paul, Bible study requires hard work and a correct approach, involving mental activity. Thus the term “digging in.”

  • Romans 12:1-2
  • 2 Timothy 2:15; 3:16-17

Referencing Romans 12:1-2, if we are being changed to the likeness of Christ from one degree to another, who is doing the changing?

Might the transformation have effect on Bible study? If so, list specific ways.

What are ways the outcome of a Bible study might look different, whether the learner be a Christian with the help of the Spirit (regenerate) or non-Christian without the help of the Spirit (unregenerate)? See 1 Corinthians 2:10-14.

Have you ever wanted to take something away from Bible study that is a more personal, direct revelation, irrelevant to the intended meaning of the Scripture? Why might this be a dangerous practice?

God-honoring posture is open to study, open to God, and open to change. If we are willing, and have prepared our “perfect postures” (see Perfect Posture, part six of Doctrine & Disciplines of the Bible) for the hard work of Bible study, the next stage is to learn to grow: to grow in our ability to actually read the Bible well and follow with understanding. God has given the Bible as a whole to us for its message in its entirety. If handling a study rightly, its goal is never to achieve a quick fix. In a true Bible study, we do not cherry-pick the Scriptures, looking for a “promise box” in a single verse or catchy phrase. 

“God wants us to grapple with the great truths of Scripture because they are life-long investments, not daily pick-me-ups.” Contends Sinclair Ferguson. 

Much like Bible reading, our basic approach to Bible study should be to first approach passages in their own context; to understand them in the light of the rest of Scripture, remembering that all Scripture has the same ultimate source: the one true and living God

  • Genesis 1-3 
  • Psalm 119:160-162
  • Matthew 26:6-13; Mark 14:3-9; Luke 7:36-50
  • Romans 15:4
  • 2 Timothy 3:16-17

In your Christ-centered reading of Genesis 1-3, make note of OT and NT connections you recognize. Can you see where a good commentary might prove helpful in your study of those chapters?

Regarding Psalm 119:160-162; do you delight in Scripture as a whole, just as the psalmist does? Or do you fall to the trap of selective study?

Because the woman in the above Gospel passages knew she was such a sinner, she had more gratitude. Would studying the law (thus knowing how far we have fallen) give us the same attitude?

Just as Paul saw value of the Old Testament in Romans 15:4, we should delight in knowing the law and be encouraged by the fact that Christ has given us a new covenant apart from the law today. Does knowing (and studying) the law and other books of the Old Testament shed new light on the importance of Jesus’ saving blood today?

We study the Bible with the mind and heart to know, love, and enjoy God. We study to know God more intimately, understand God’s word, learn direction in life, and to find comfort and hope. Through our Bible study, God exposes our innermost thoughts and desires.

His Word helps us see ourselves as we really are. 

The working of the Word convicts us of sin so we might repent, experience its transformation, and be set apart for God’s holy purposes. In the end, we study God’s Word so we might know God, love him, and our neighbor more fully. 

  • Psalm 119:11-18
  • Mark 12:29-31
  • John 1:1-5; 10:30; 12:44; 13:34-35; 14:7-9; 15:3; 17:17-23
  • 1 Timothy 6:17
  • Hebrews 4:12-16 

Jesus’ prayer in John 17:17-23 is related to what he said to his disciples in 15:3. Having already accepted Jesus’ word, perhaps he was praying not so much for their purification, but that they be set apart for God’s own use. As you have read the scriptures above and have identified our sinful habits and behaviors, go back and examine your own heart to determine if you are truly “set apart” as a child of God. Understanding that justification is a unconditional, one-time positional leap (moment of salvation), and sanctification is progressive (a life-long process), which areas do you find in your life that need change?

The working of the Word in the life of the believer lays open her heart and life, honing in on specific shortcomings in faith and practice. Can you see where openness to this process would strengthen the relationship of the believer with her Savior? 

Throughout history, God has revealed and fulfilled commands and promises, often illustrated through the lives of biblical characters. The ultimate example of this is Jesus himself. As we study this, we begin to discover what His will is in every situation and circumstance of life. Scripture itself teaches that maturity comes from the “living and active” Word transforming our minds (Hebrews 4:12). Stemming from this maturity comes both correct understanding and correct learning how to apply the Word to us personally. 

In the words of R.C. Sproul, “This yields a practical help for bible study: read the Bible with a red pen in hand. I suggest that you put a question mark in the margin beside every passage that you find unclear or hard to understand. Likewise, put an X beside every passage that offends you or makes you uncomfortable. Afterward, you can focus on the areas you struggle with, especially the texts marked with an X. This can be a guide to holiness, as the X’s show us quickly where our thinking is out of line with the mind of Christ. If I don’t like something I read in Scripture, perhaps I simply don’t understand it. If so, studying it again may help. If, in fact, I do understand the passage and still don’t like it, this is not an indication there is something wrong with the Bible. It’s an indication that something is wrong with me, something that needs to change.” Bible study is the means to develop spiritual maturity and godly wisdom. Effective Bible study involves learning how to think, feel, and act every single day. And as with reading, its effect is cumulative. 

 “Godly wisdom” is the ability to see life from God’s perspective and react or respond to it with His mind.

  • John 13:15
  • Philippians 2:4-11; 3:12-15
  • Hebrews 5:12-14
  • 1 Peter 2:21

Refer to the Philippians passages. Believers in Philippi were preoccupied with self-centeredness (which Paul gently reprimanded and corrected in his letter). How might this same ego-centric attitude be presented in Bible Study? What problems stem from this?

What would be the right example for us regarding attitude, time and attention dedicated to Bible study (alluding to John 13:15 and 1 Peter 2:21)?

Alongside the biblical posture toward the Scriptures a believer should have, a healthy Bible study involves observation, interpretation, application, and organization. The heart of Bible study is seeing truth for yourself and discerning what it means. Three basic skills we need to develop are to ask the questions, “What do I see?” “What does it mean?” and “How does it work?”

Following that discernment, the believer applies truth to her life. Discipline yourself to not become discouraged in the process. Remember, the Bible was written so that anyone who wants to know who God is and how they are instructed to live can read it and find out, no matter how rough the course. The fruit comes with patience and time. 

  • John 8:42-47
  • Revelation 7:14-17

Are you willing to do the hard work of Bible study? Are you thirsty for His Word and the 

truths hidden within? Will you invest time that will, in the end, be redeemed (Revelation 


The 1647 Westminster Confession of Faith states, “All things in Scripture are not alike plain in themselves, nor alike clear unto all; yet those things which are necessary to be known, believed, and observed, for salvation, are so clearly propounded and opened in some place of Scripture or other, that not only the learned, but the unlearned, in a due use of the ordinary means, may attain unto a sufficient understanding of them … The infallible rule of interpretation of Scripture is the Scripture itself; and therefore, when there is a question about the true and full sense of any scripture (which is not manifold, but one), it must be searched and known by other places that speak more clearly.”

  • Psalm 19:7; 119:130
  • Acts 4:13
  • 2 Peter 1:20-21; 3:16 

Paraphrase Psalm 19:7 and 119:130.

In the Bible, we become increasingly aware of all that it means to be in Christ. It is vital that we understand the principles of the Bible are universally relevant. Living out God’s truth demands that we plug it into our particular set of modern circumstances, not the other way around. 

We do NOT change the truth to fit our cultural agenda. The Bible is eternal and unchanging.

What does change is our application of that truth in light of our needs. However, we need to be thoughtful and careful about which aspects of a passage are transferable to us. We should cautiously bridge the gap between biblical times and our own situation with timeless truth. 

  • Romans 8:28-30
  • 1 Timothy 4:6
  • James 1:19-27
  • 1 Peter 2:2

Peter implied in 1 Peter 2:2 that spiritual milk (in this context) should be eagerly desired for nourishment. Do you grasp the concept in James 1:19-27 that the Christian must first be nourished, and mature in faith before teaching the Word? 

Paraphrase 1 Timothy 4:6.

God often uses life circumstances to draw us closerto His scriptures. Can you recall a time in your life when sought the Bible for comfort and/or guidance? Were you cautious and careful notto change the truth to fit your present circumstances?

With an understanding that Scripture interprets Scripture, can you see where a good,  concordance might aid your Bible study? (I recommend Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance.)

Accompanying the practice of reading the Bible well, sound and accurate application requires a Godward posture toward the Scriptures. In the words of Charles Spurgeon, “Scripture is the best interpreter of Scripture. The locks of Scripture are only to be opened with the keys of Scripture; and there is no lock in the whole Bible, which God meant us to open, without a key to fit it somewhere in the Bible, and we are to search for it until we find it.” Accurate application is crucial for the believer to honor Scripture rightly. 

Beware of the potential ego-centered problems with application.

In personal application, we have a tendency to apply lessons in areas we are already working on but neglect new areas of need. We should also beware of rationalizing our application to fit our present lifestyle. In addition, we need to be careful to never allow an emotional experience to be substituted for a volitional decision. We should also be aware of social pressures causing us to inadvertently compromise what we know to be true. Nevertheless, remember that we cannot apply what we do not know: This takes introspect and deliberate work. For accurate application, it is important to know your applicational context or situation andto know yourself. 

In Bible study, we must look for application in the form of a universal principle – truth anywhere, anyplace, and under any circumstance. For relevance, consider the needs, interests, questions, and problems of today.

We need to think about specific application of biblical truth to life and ask specific questions: Am I open to hear what the Spirit is saying to me (through the Word) in ways I need to adjust my life? Am I willing to make adjustments to my life based on God’s Word?

Maturing in the Word requires that we deal with the appetites of our hearts, and make room for honoring God in sound doctrine and spiritual disciplines. Daily life becomes more than checking off a list of requirements for the day when our thoughts, desires, and energies are focused on the fullness of the Word (rather than all the things offered by this world).

  • Psalm 119:105-112
  • Daniel 11:32

Through diligent study of the Bible, we become anchored. Through application, we begin examining our own hearts. We discover that God’s Word is fully able to satisfy our deepest needs and desires as we stand firm. We can follow the Word to be our guide, trust the Word to give us life, and delight in the Word until the very end.

In Part Nine, Handle With Care, we will consider our aim in spiritual disciplines including further application of reading and study.

Reflect on your relationship with Bible study.

  • My goals in Bible study habits are…
  • As a result of my Bible study, my hope is…
  • My prayer for my work in personal Bible study is…

All sources for this series are listed here:

Bible Study, Doctrine & Disciplines of the Bible Series, Theological Study, Theology, Uncategorized

Doctrine & Disciplines of the Bible, Part Seven

Read the Bible Well

In Doctrine & Disciplines of the Bible, Part One -You Are Invited, we determined the lack of spiritual disciplines in our society and the vast need for Christians to feed on God’s Word. Sadly, it is possible that many who call themselves Christian no longer place their trust in the Scriptures. They seek wisdom, guidance, and salvation elsewhere. 

In parts 2-5, we’ve considered the Doctrine of the Word of God and the trustworthiness of the Bible. In doing so, it must be with the understanding that the Scriptures were not written to satisfy our curiosity; the Bible was written to change lives. And as the scriptures, referenced in biblical support, have shown, Jesus emphasized that the actual, written words of the Bible can be trusted (not just the ideas). Christians should learn to read, believe, and obey the Bible. When reading the Bible, we should “read the Bible well” to enjoy all God has to offer. 

Now, as we ponder Part Seven, Read the Bible Well, and Part Eight, The Hard Work of Bible Study, I emphasize that Bible reading, and study, are not for only a select few. God’s Word is meant to be enjoyed by all Christians, and yet a few essential insights can clear up a lot of common misconceptions. 

In this online context, however, I will not attempt to cover everything, from translation, to interpretation, to application. Rather, it is my desire to help the reader understand that there are different parts of the Bible, affecting their meaning, and that context analysis is essential to determining implications for today. I will let you know in advance that I encourage even further study on reading the Bible well. For that purpose, I recommend: How to Read the Bible Well by Gordon D. Fee & Douglas Stuart and Knowing Scriptureby R.C. Sproul.

Communicating stories through literature is an ancient art. As we have established, however, the Bible is not an ordinary book. Who needs to read the Scriptures? Throughout history, the Scriptures have been read aloud for the benefit of various groups of people. Priests and Kings were commanded to read the Word (ex. Leviticus 17:18-19). And as the Bible teaches, God’s Word needs to be taught to families and read by individuals (ex. Deuteronomy 6:7-9). 

  • Exodus 24:7 
  • Numbers 24:17-19
  • Deuteronomy 6:4-9; 17:18-19; 31:9-13
  • Joshua 8:34-35 
  • Nehemiah 8:1-18
  • Psalms 1:2; 119:11, 105
  • Matthew 4:1-11; 5:17-18
  • Luke 4:16-21
  • Acts 8:27-32; 15:21
  • Colossians 4:16.
  • 2 Timothy 3:15
  • Revelation 22:16

According to Deuteronomy 17:18-19, how often was the king to read the Scriptures, and for what purpose?

In your own words, paraphrase what occurred in Nehemiah 8:1-18.

Read Psalm 1:2. When you come to the Bible, do you immerse yourself in Scripture? Do you do it in a manner that Jesus Christ himself would rise in your heart? Do you delight in him?

The emphasis on Matthew 5:17-18 is positive, not negative. With this perspective, who came to fulfill the law? 

The only reason the Bible seems boring to some is we can come to it having been dulled ourselves. Kevin DeYoung writes, “I’ll bet there are times you get passionate about words on a page. We all pay attention when the words we are hearing or reading are of great benefit to us, like a will or an acceptance letter. We can read carefully when the text before us warns of great danger, like instructions on an electrical panel. We delight to read stories about us and about those we love. We love to read about greatness, beauty, and power. Do you see how I’ve just described the Bible?” He continues, “To be sure, the Bible can feel dull at times, but taken as a whole it is the greatest story ever told, and those who know it best are usually those who delight in it most.” If we can read a novel, we can read the Bible. We need to read the Bible imaginatively and meditatively. We need to reflect on it. Like a good mystery, we should read the Bible thoughtfully and inquisitively. We should read the Bible acquisitively, to take possession of its treasures. However, proper Bible reading first begins with prayer. Revisit Psalm 119. 

Food for thought: What words or phrases in each of the verses below describe the psalmist’s appreciation of the Word? List them as you read.

  • Psalm 119:48, 97, 119, 127, 140, 167

Is your goal in Bible reading for information only? Or is it, as it should be, for affection, worship, or obedience? 

We must not only read the Bible for information transfer. We must retain it, and process it over time; this involves study and thinking. John Newton wisely penned, “The course of reading [the Bible] today will prepare some lights for what we shall read tomorrow, and throw a further light upon what we read yesterday.”

Vital for overall understanding, we must understand that even though it contains two distinct testaments, the Bible is a single unit. The Bible is God’s own revelation, inspired by God Himself. We can rest in the applications of our reading and study, knowing that the Bible is inerrant. The Word of God is holy and sacred. The Word of God is able. The Word of God is inspired by God. It is profitable or useful; it can thoroughly equip the man of God for every good work.

  • 2 Timothy 3:15-17

Specifically, which biblical doctrines do you recognize in 2 Timothy 3:15-17? What might be their application in your life?

Howard Hendricks, a professor at the Dallas Theological Seminary, gives ten strategies to first-rate reading. In those strategies, he includes the practices of reading thoughtfully, reading repeatedly, reading patiently, reading selectively, reading prayerfully, reading imaginatively, reading meditatively, and reading purposefully

Purposeful reading looks for the aim of the author. Let’s remember from Inspiration of the Scriptures that not one word was written by chance. As readers, we are responsible to contribute only these words to the meaning. Many times, the Bible clearly states the purpose in the author’s writing. Yet sometimes, the intent is less obvious, and requires consideration of a larger portion of the text. 

  • Joshua 1
  • Psalm 1
  • Proverbs 2:3-5
  • John 20:30-31

In Joshua 1:7-9, what is the significance of the Book of the Law and what were the specific instructions? 

Proverbs 2:4-5 is a reminder that prayer and earnest effort in our walk with God are required, but what do we have to gain? Why is it important to find out what the original author intended?

Are you ever been tempted to add to your Bible reading’s takeaway, making it easily mesh with today’s ideals?

Do you ever wish for a more direct revelation than what you get from slowly, yet diligently, reading through the Scriptures?

Because of the indwelling of the Holy Spirit, reading the Bible well gives the Christian unimaginable understanding. Paul tells us that it is by reading God’s Word that we can understand what was not made known in its full significance (ex. 1 Corinthians 2:8-10). But, God wants us to pay attention to the words of Scripture, and know how they are being used. He intends we use the brains we’ve been given.

  • 1 Corinthians 2:8-10
  • Ephesians 3:3-5

The Bible is not such an obscure book if it is read and studied properly. When we read the Bible well, devotional reading is not the only kind we do. We read for learning, and for understanding. An essential element of Bible reading, study, and teaching is what Danny Akin refers to as the two evangelical views of revelation today: normative and private revelation. He states normative revelation as “in the Bible only, for ALL believers, provides general guidance.” He follows with the other view, private revelation, defined as “Bible PLUS experience, for individuals only, provides special guidance.” Akin adds that “this view is not biblical; it is dangerous, unnecessary, the origin of cults, and it can be reduced to the absurd.” (emphasis mine). In recognizing the characteristics of revelation, we can understand revelation is distinct from illumination. Revelation is objective – disclosure of truth. Illumination is inward and subjective – discovery of truth revealed. It is distinct from inspiration. Revelation is the what, the content, the message, the product. Inspiration is the how, the conveyer, the means, the process.

“Who speaks for God? …we should be properly concerned whenever anyone says they have God’s deeper meaning to a text – especially if the text never meant what it is now made to mean. Of such interpretations are all the cults born, and innumerable lesser heresies.” – Gordon D. Fee

As established earlier in this series (and worth mentioning in Bible reading), it is vital to recognize that the overarching storyline of the Bible is God’s activity in history, his revelation given in different ways and at different times, and the fulfillment found in Jesus Christ. The Scripture as a whole can be presented as three elements (paraphrased from the teaching of Danny Akin): 

  • Historical –God has been active in history in order to show his power and love. 
  • Progressive and cumulative – God gave his revelation in different ways and at different times, but now he has given his final revelation in these last days. 
  • Christ centered – God’s revelation reached its fulfillment when he spoke his final word to us in his Son, Jesus Christ. Christ is the superior and final agent of God’s redemption and revelation (Hebrews 1:2-4, Psalms 2 and 110).

“In Christ God’s revelation has been completed.” – Herman Bavnick

Recognizing genre leads to intelligent Bible reading. Clearly, biblical genre influences our understanding. We must always consider, “What type of literature is this?” Before reading/study, the first thing a reader needs to know is what type of writing the book’s author meant it to be. In other words, what kind of literature was he writing? As with reading any other writings, there is a difference in reading a psalm from Paul’s letters. Revelation is read differently from Ecclesiastes. A prophecy cannot be read in the same way you would read a parable. Our enjoyment in Bible reading is complemented by distinguishing these different writings in the Bible. Their work and the impact on their original audiences are more fully realized in our proper understanding of the author’s intent to communicate their messages. Genres of biblical literature include the Law, History, Wisdom and Poetry, Prophecy, Gospel, and Letters.

Can you see that intelligent Bible reading comes with the reader putting on his/her thinking cap? 

Read Philippians 2:14. With understanding, could the problem of grumbling possibly come from one knowing that obedience (putting the reading into practice) should follow the reading of Scripture?

Are you offended when another person takes your words out of context? In the same light, would God and the biblical authors be offended when the same is done to His words?

Does conversation look different with a person who is familiar with your cultural norms and traditions? What about someone who is unfamiliar with these same aspects of your life?

There is no exception; reading in context is of utmost importance. Context refers to reading and comprehending that which goes before and that which follows a given passage. It refers to the circumstances that form the setting for an event, a statement or a written text by which that event, statement, or text can be rightly understood. Our understanding of the contexts in which God spoke His Word has a profound impact on the way we hear what God wishes to say to us through that Word.

“Without realizing it, many people develop their own lists of favorite passages of the Bible that then become their controlling grid for interpreting the rest of the Bible.” – D.A. Carson

Ample resources exist to aid in our deductions. I suggest you use a good Bible dictionary. Read a good Study Bible (my personal preference is the ESV Study Bible), and good commentaries (such as the Christ-Centered Exposition commentaries), which will help you understand the grand themes of the Bible. This big-picture view keeps us from lifting passages out of context, or reading something into the Bible that is not there. We should consider several kinds of context: Reading any verse in literary context requires us to consider the larger part in which the text was derived. The larger part is chapter, leading into the book, with the ultimate context being the Bible in its entirety.  The reader should ask herself, Where does the passage fit? How does it function?

Andreas Kostenberger, Midwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, notes, “When we speak about ‘literary context’ we mean the broader section of a literary work, which surrounds a particular passage we are reading or studying. In short, literary context refers to what comes before and after a passage, and we want to try to understand the role our particular passage plays in the development of the book we are reading.”

Historical context requires we ask questions: When is this taking place? Where does this passage fit in history? What else was taking place? What influences were on the writer and those to whom he was writing? When historical context is ignored and we begin our interpretation of the text with the here and now; we stray from the original author’s intent. One easily can read into the text some meanings that were not originally intended. We disrespect the Scriptures in making a text mean anything that pleases us, placing credit due to the Holy Spirit. Remember, the Spirit inspired the original intent.

Professor of the Bible, George Guthrie, reminds us: “At the same time we need to remember that Scripture is an ancient text that has come down to us from millennia ago. With such an ancient text we would expect to find certain words, events, concepts, and cultural features that are obscure to us.”

The Bible is the written Word of God, but it is also an ancient book about people and cultures very different from us. “Culture has to do with attitudes, patterns of behavior, or expressions of a particular society; and these are aspects of the ancient world that have an impact on our understanding of the Bible,” Kostenberger states. A full understanding of cultural context demands that we look at ancient cultures for insight. The reader should look into worship practices, clothing, food, and currency, as the text necessitates. A biblical text cannot mean what it could never have meant for its original readers, what God originally intended it to mean when it was first spoken or written. My suggestion to aid the reader in cultural context is a Bible handbook (such as the Holman Illustrated Bible Handbook).

“The influence of the twenty-first century mindset is a far more formidable obstacle to accurate biblical interpretation than is the problem of the conditioning of ancient culture.” – R.C. Sproul

A good Bible Atlas is helpful in understanding geographic context. The reader should ask, What was this location known for? What was the size of the city? What was the terrain and was it unique in any way? What was the distance from one designated place to another?

In gaining understanding of theological context, the reader must first consider where the passage fits in the unfolding of Scripture. Questions to ask would be: What did this author know about God? What was the relationship of his readers to God? How did people worship God at that point in history? How much Scripture did the writer (and his audience) have access to? What religions and worldviews were competition at the time of the original writing? It is at this point in the process of reading well that the reader benefits from systematic theology. Millard Erickson’s Christian Theology or Wayne Grudem’s Systematic Theology are both good choices for the Christian woman.

Kostenberger notes, “When we speak about theological context, we are referring to the tapestry of theological themes in the story of the Bible…So we are not just looking for historical facts but also asking questions about what stories, or practices, or institutions tell us about God, or about ourselves as human beings, or the world in which we live. We are asking about the development of those ideas over time, as God revealed truth progressively in the development of the biblical story.” 

Can you think of events and statements whose context can be altered by the setting?

What expressions of society might affect your understanding of a passage?

What particular words can you recall that have changed or expanded their meaning in your lifetime?

Giving further warning, Kostenberger believes that we should consider the impact of our own context on our Bible reading and study. “The key is to have a posture toward God’s Word by which His Word is changing us in our context rather than our molding the Word to our cultural tastes and values.” Beyond context in our reading, we also consider interpretation of the text. 

Do you have a tendency to treat the Scriptures too generally?

What is one specific biblical truth you have applied to life in the past year? Recall its impact. Was a nonbeliever looking on to see its effects?

Guthrie proposes, “We do not read the Bible as some magical book full of superstitious spells or as a talk-show-style, quick-fix manual for life. Rather, we read the Bible as God’s Holy Word, a Word that speaks relevantly and authoritatively to all aspects of our lives as we take all of the Bible seriously.” We seek to live in light of God’s Word. Therefore, with any passage of Scripture, we need to ask, So…what?

What is your favorite Old Testament story? Are you quick to find yourself in that story?

Do you find parallels in Old Testament stories and our lives today? Can you identify the strategic tension in the stories?

We are not always told at the end of a narrative whether what happened was good or bad. Should we always act as the Old Testament characters acted? Explain.

Are you challenged to interpret Scripture looking to the real hero of the Bible as God, not yourself?

“If the political mood of our age favours one-issue politics, and sometimes one-issue Christianity, serious readers of the Bible must think more comprehensively. They will want to stress what Scripture stresses, and focus on the largest and more certain themes of God’s gracious self-disclosure.” writes D.A. Carson.

Christ-centered interpretation demands we leave behind moralism: be brave like David, pray like Daniel, be nice to your mother-in-law like Ruth, etc. The real hero of the Bible is God, not mankind. The massive problems with moralism are that we cannot apply this method consistently. This method often falls into the trap leading to legalism. 

How does knowing this alter your reading and telling of the stories of David and Goliath, Daniel, and Ruth, knowing that they were not the true heroes, but their God instead was?

Moralism teaches us that our own good performance for God is what makes Him accept us

Remember, the Bible is not ultimately about us… It is about Jesus Christ. The good news of the Bible is not to be good and do good. The good news of the Bible is that God sent a rescuer to save us, because we aren’t good. Therefore, we must read the Bible with that beautiful truth foremost in our thoughts. Christ, and the Apostles, read the Bible with Christ as the center.

  • Luke 24:25-27
  • John 5:39-47
  • 2 Corinthians 1:20
  • 2 Timothy 3:14-15

One should interpret Scripture with a spirit of humility. With the right of private interpretation (interpretation by the common believer, not through a hierarchy or magistrate) comes the responsibility of clear and accurate interpretation. Christ-centered interpretation can be applied to different narrative genres of Scripture. In addition, the law must be interpreted in light of Christ, with the understanding that it give us God’s standard. We have fallen short of that standard. Jesus kept it perfectly.

“The analogy of faith is the rule that Scripture is to interpret Scripture.” – R.C. Sproul

  • Genesis 3
  • Deuteronomy 21:18-23 (laws)
  • Joshua 7
  • Judges 16
  • Ruth
  • 1 Samuel 16-17

For instance, when approaching poetry, we should keep in mind that many times the poems of the OT are retelling the mighty acts of God, pointing forward to Christ. We easily identify with the Psalms because they express an array of human emotions, but the words expressed are mostly about God.

  • Psalm 22-24; 73; 19; 23

Can you see where we can look to Psalms for hymns, narrative praise, prayers of thanksgiving, or lament?

Can you see that the psalms help us reflect on God, who He is, respond to Him and think about Him appropriately?

One important thing to note is that there are two ways to interpret wisdom, one comparing wisdom as a person. Proverbs are not the same as promises: the Proverbs outline practical living.

  • Proverbs 1:20-33; 5:7; 8:1-33; 9:1-6; 11:1-10; 26:4-5
  • Luke 2:52

Another genre, the prophetic writings, are commentary on the Old Testament. Their imagery is often drawn from earlier themes, and the storyline mirrors the gospel story itself. Take Israel, for example. Israel was born as a nation in the Exodus, died for sin in the exile, and they resurrected from the dead in their return to the land.

How did the prophets do more than forecast the future? 

What was the message of your favorite Old Testament prophet?

Can you think of examples where the prophets called people to faithfulness?

What part does their call to covenant faithfulness play in lives today?

Explain how the Old Testament prophets’ messages are fulfilled in Jesus Christ.

True happiness cannot be experienced as long as we are ignorant of God’s Word. The Scriptures are God’s revelation of himself. However, when read in light of various contexts, the Bible can transform our own personal contexts, whatever they might be. We read the Bible to know the truth and to know God. Also, our purpose in reading the Bible well is to live well, experience God’s freedom, and to bring us joy in Christ Jesus. Ultimately, as with any spiritual discipline, when done well, Bible reading is done to the glory of God.

  • Psalm 119:111
  • John 8:32; 14:23-24
  • Romans 2:2; 15:4
  • 1 Corinthians 1:21 
  • Galatians 4:8-9 
  • 1 Thessalonians 4:1-8
  • 1 Timothy 4:16
  • 2 Timothy 3:16-17
  • 2 Peter 1:20-21

“Interpretation is one;application is many,” emphasizes Akin. There is only one ultimate interpretation of a passage of Scripture. The text doesn’t mean one thing today and something else tomorrow. Whatever it means, it means and has meant forever. But you will never cease the process of applying that truth to your life. Be careful how you interpret — You will only multiply error if you start with a faulty interpretation.

To clarify, it is vital we remember the Bible is one story about how God rescues us from sin, the curse, and death through His Son, Jesus Christ. It is ultimately ALL about Him, and we should likewise read it that way. However, that doesn’t mean that the Bible doesn’t apply at all to our lives. It means that it only applies to our lives in and through Christ. Ultimately, the more we know about God, the more we learn about ourselves.

  • John 3:6-8; 6:36, 44, 63-65; 20:31
  • Romans 10:17; 15:4
  • 1 Peter 1:23-25

In the doing of our Bible reading as a spiritual discipline, we trust in the Bible’s inspiration, inerrancy, sufficiency, and authority. This provides the pathway for the Holy Spirit’s transformational work. It is crucial we understand that the Holy Spirit does not awaken and strengthen faith apart from the Scriptures. The Word of God sustains life and gives hope. With perfect posture in coming to the Bible, as well as thoughtful interpretation, the Christian should read the Bible well.

Reflect on your reasons for reading the Bible well.

  • My goals for Bible reading are…
  • As a result of reading the Bible well, I hope…
  • My prayer for my Bible reading is…

All sources for this series are listed here:

Bible Study, Doctrine & Disciplines of the Bible Series, Theological Study, Theology, Topical Study, Uncategorized

Doctrine & Disciplines of the Bible, Part Six

Perfect Posture

Previously in the study, Doctrine & Disciplines of the Bible, a call to spiritual disciplines was presented, communicating both the importance of reading the Bible well, and the hard work of Bible study. God’s Word is so much more than printed words on paper; it has the power to sift and separate. God’s Word lifts, humbles, convicts, and soothes our souls. Even so, we have a selfish tendency to use every word to make ourselves the focus.

Nonetheless, is it not true we live in a time of rampant individualism? Today’s motto is It’s all about me: My life. My job. My family. My plans. My rights. My happiness. It’s me, me, me. This selfish attitude has crept into the church and into our Bible reading. Perfect posture for the reading of Scripture is Godward. Godward posture requires we also put God forefront in our Bible reading and study. Ephesians 2:10 reads that we were made to fit into God’s plan, not the other way: “For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God prepared beforehand, that we should walk in them.” And, although the Word applies to us, it is not centered around us. It’s not just about us: It’s first about God.

What might individualism look like in your own life?

Why would your preconceived notions be important to acknowledge when coming to the Scriptures?

In light of this individualism, what should I feel about the Word of God? Kevin DeYoung writes, “We are all righteously indignant when someone else holds in little esteem what we know to be precious. Extreme delight in someone or something naturally leads to extreme disgust when others consider that person or thing not worthy of their delight. No one who truly delights in God’s word will be indifferent to the disregarding of it.” 

Christians are quick to make excuses of why we aren’t spending time in the Bible: Believing we don’t have the energy or see the necessity of why we should study, we lack motivation. Offering the excuse of little time due to being too busy, we have a problem with priorities. The excuse of not knowing how to read well or doing the hard work of Bible study reveals a problem of not learning technique. And when we simply don’t get around to it, we have a problem of preoccupation.

Many times in this series, we have considered the praise of God’s Word in the Psalms. In Psalm 119:17, we are reminded that in order to serve God rightly, we should seek to have our eyes opened to behold His truth and earnestly desire to understand it. In all honesty, would this be your own desire? Does your heart posture include humbling yourself enough to set aside agendas, opinions, and emotions? Are you giving the Spirit space to work?

  • Deuteronomy 6:6-7
  • Psalm 1:1-2
  • Psalm 119:17, 53, 119, 127, 139-140

Read Deuteronomy 6:6-7. God’s Word ought to occupy the mind of the Christian all the time. Is Bible reading and study something to be hurried?

Read Psalm 1:1-2. Do you see Bible reading as something we should do, over and over, “day and night,” repeatedly?

Are there times you come to the Bible with an ambivalent or indifferent attitude?

Do you come to God’s Word with delight and expectation?

The Bible is truly magnificent and awe-inspiring. Does your posture reflect this truth?

David Dockery sums up the need for a correct biblical posture: “Of course the Bible is the most relevant book on the planet, but its message is a God centered message, not a self-centered message. The Bible isn’t primarily about us; it is all about God! The Bible is about knowing and loving God as He wants to be known and loved, coming into His presence, having your mind renewed to think about life the way He does. Once you begin to understand the Bible is about God and not primarily about you, it takes on a whole different priority in your life – and a whole new relevance. If we are really God centered, it can make all the difference.”

With perfect posture, we as His children are supernaturally renewed moment by moment, day by day, as we read, hear, learn, and live out the Scriptures. Whether our posture be kneeling before God or standing before God, it is not the posture of our bodies but of our hearts that is important. Thus, as we apply our posture to Bible reading and study, we would do well to remember that God opposes the proud and gives grace to the humble (ex. James 4:6, 1 Peter 5:5, Proverbs 3:34).

  • 2 Chronicles 6:7-9 & 39
  • Psalm 44:21
  • Psalm 51:1-17
  • Proverbs 4:23
  • Proverbs 21:2
  • Jeremiah 17:10

In 2 Chronicles 6:7-9, we see God’s attention to the heart of David. What posture do you see in 2 Chronicles 6:39? Why was posture important in this context?

In Psalm 51:1-17, we see essential heart postures that can draw us closer to God. List them.

What would be the application of Proverbs 4:23 to our posture in Bible reading and study?

Charles Spurgeon penned, “I confess that the words of Scripture thrill my soul as nothing else ever can; they bear me aloft or dash me down, they tear me in pieces or they build me up after an unrivalled fashion. The words of God have more power over me than ever David’s fingers had over his harp strings. Is it not so with you?” The key to perfect posture is to have one toward God’s Word by which His Word is changing us in our current context, rather than our reshaping of the Word to fit our cultural tastes. The Bible, as read in the light of its various contexts, it can transform our own various contexts, as we explore further in Part Seven of this series. “It is not the book that is to be altered: our hearts want altering.” writes Spurgeon.

God’s Word is precise, not ambiguous. Are you guilty of superficial Bible study? Does your study consist of nothing more than, “I guess this verse means” or “What does this verse mean to you?” Why might this approach be incorrect posture?

We don’t want to merely admire the Bible. We need to understand it. Seeing the Bible as God’s Word, why is it crucial we gain understanding?

Why would reading books about the Bible, or devotional materials loosely based on it, not be a substitute for reading the Scriptures?

Wielded by the Holy Spirit, the Bible has the power to sort us out spiritually, growing us in relationship with our Lord. Our heart posture matters. If we are not being moved in heart, challenged, and moved to new places in life (new levels of obedience and service to God), we are not really reading the Bible the way God intended. Spiritual renewal and continued growth is always related to intake of God’s Word. In The Power of Surrender, Michael Catt writes, “The Word of God was never given to make our flesh feel good; it was given to confront us with our worldly and fleshly thinking. The Word takes us to the cross.” 

“The Holy Scriptures are the lifeline God throws us in order to ensure that he and we stay connected while the rescue is in progress.”- J.I. Packer

As we reject conformity to the world by the renewal of our minds, our Bible reading enables spiritual growth. We can know the truth, enabling us to think clearly about what God says is true and right. Therefore, Bible reading profits us to live well for God in this world and live out His will. In experiencing God’s freedom, his grace, peace, and hope, Bible reading brings us joy. With Bible intake, we guard ourselves from sin and error. Bible reading and Bible study equip Christians to handle the Word rightly as we represent our Lord in ministering to other Christ followers and evangelize the lost. Corporately, we are built up as a Christian community with others when hearing and reading the Bible.

  • Joshua 1:8
  • Psalm 26:2
  • Psalm 51:10
  • Acts 20:32
  • Romans 12:1-2
  • Ephesians 4:14-16, 6:11
  • 2 Timothy 3:15-17
  • 1 Peter 2:1-2
  • 2 Peter 2:1-2

In Joshua 1:8, Joshua’s courage and hope of victory in the quest for Canaan were made to depend on his firm and inflexible adherence to the law of God (Deuteronomy 17:18).  Why might you be tempted to look for hope elsewhere?

God sees straight through to the motives of the heart. A proper posture when coming to the Word would be Psalm 51:10. Why might that be?

Referencing 2 Peter 2:1-2, Peter’s constant prayer of grace and peace for his Christian friends is dependent on their deep knowledge of God and Jesus. How might you apply Peter’s prayer?

Would honest evaluation determine your Bible reading a joy, or has it become dread? Where is your zeal?

The marks of spiritual renewal in relation to God’s word are: the necessity of Bible intake, reverently hearing His word expounded and taught, and His people responding rightly. This is most clearly seen in the book of Nehemiah. In Nehemiah chapter eight, we can acknowledge that God’s people were hungry for the written word. Their posture toward the written Word, reverent anticipation and expectation, had no less zeal due to the Book of the Law of Moses having already been an ancient book, a thousand years old. Clearly, God’s people in Nehemiah’s day believed the Book to be authoritative. If we are God’s people, we read his Word with the same zeal. A proper view of scripture understands and trusts the Bible’s reliability.

  • Exodus 24:2, 7
  • 2 Chronicles 34:27
  • Nehemiah 8:1-5, 9-18
  • Psalm 19:10
  • Isaiah 66:2

When Moses read the newly written book of the Covenant to the people (Exodus 24), what was their response? What was the heart posture of the people in vs. 7? 

Reading Isaiah 66:2, consider that the spiritual temple of the heart is God’s favorite dwelling place. What heart posture is identified?

 “Scripture itself is alone competent to judge our doctrine of Scripture.” – J.I. Packer

By the working of the Word, the Holy Spirit produces outcomes in the life of the believer. Results from a Lifeway study show, when coupled with regularly attending church, Bible reading is the number one predictor of wisdom and maturity. George Muller wisely penned, “The vigor of our spiritual life will be in exact proportion to the place held by the Bible in our life and thoughts.” 

  • Deuteronomy 17:19-20
  • Matthew 22:37
  • Luke 10:26-28
  • Acts 8:30-34, 17:11-12

In Deuteronomy 17:19-20, which character traits and heart attitudes are mentioned? Why would these be vital in the daily reading?

Matthew 22:37 and Luke 10:26-28 command the whole man to use different ways of thinking (not different parts) in relation to God. Why would more than a superficial allegiance to God be beneficial in everyday Bible reading?

In their response to the gospel, the Jews were zealous to hear what Paul had to say (Acts 17:11-12). Scripture indicates they met with him daily, not accepting the truth uncritically but rather examining the scriptures for themselves. Their conversion involved intellect and was not merely emotional. Why might this be important for us to understand? How might this affect your attitude toward Bible reading and study?

As we have established, the Bible is, in fact, the voice of God; Christians innately know we should read it. We need enough space in our minds to routinely sit, read, and think about the Bible — We need space in our hearts to take it in and respond to it appropriately. Many of us don’t because we have a hard time staying on task to gain understanding of the text. The fact is, we are going to have to start tuning out distractions in order to make room in our lives and hearts to hear God’s voice. Correct posture involves the whole of life as we try to grasp and interact with the whole story of Scripture and find our place in that story.

“Apply yourself wholly to the Scriptures, and apply the Scriptures wholly to yourself.”– J.A. Bengel

  • Deuteronomy 33:3
  • 2 Chronicles 34:21
  • Nehemiah 8:6-8
  • Psalm 1:2, 119:17-18
  • Proverbs 2:1-6, 3:5

Have your eyes been opened to behold His truth? Do you earnestly desire to understand it (Psalm 119:17-18)?

Which words or phrases in Proverbs 2:1-6 might indicate the right perspective, prayer, and effort? 

What should I do with the Word of God? We have looked at Psalm 119 throughout this study and it is true that it illustrates the Spirit prompted uses for the word. Obediently, we are to sing the word, speak the word, study the word, and store up the word. The Christian should obey the word, praise God for the word, and pray the word. These are indicators of what we believe and feel about the Word.

Take notes for what you personally believe, practice, and feel about God’s Word as you read and reread the verses below.

  • Psalm 119:7-8, 11, 13, 15, 44, 46, 48-49, 57-58, 62, 93, 97, 121-123, 129, 141, 145-160, 164, 167-168, 171-172

Referring once again to Nehemiah: In God’s Word, Our Story, Nancy Guthrie writes in her summary of Nehemiah 7-8, “Coming Together Around God’s Word: The people gathered at the gate were not hungry for some sort of spiritual experience apart from God’s Word. They were not heading out to find places to be alone, where they might silence themselves and listen to hear a special word all about them spoken into their private thoughts. They were hungry to hear God speaking to them in such a way that they would know for sure it was his voice they were hearing.” In response to the reading, the people worshiped the Lord with their faces to the ground (8:3-8). Rather than constantly posing the question, Isn’t life all about me?, may we be a generation of women who God would raise up to be hungry for the book!

Perfect posture positions the reader to be obedient to what the text plainly means instead of supporting the reader’s preconceived ideas. Slightly revised from Tim Keller’s book, It’s all about Jesus, this understanding positions the reader to acknowledge Jesus:

Jesus is the true and better Adam, who passed the test in the wilderness not the garden, and whose obedience is imputed to us. Jesus is the true and better Abel, who, though innocently slain by wicked hands, has blood that now cries out, not for our condemnation, but for our acquittal. Jesus is the true and better Ark of Noah, who carries us safely thru the wrath of God revealed from heaven and delivers us to a new earth. Jesus is the true and better Abraham, who answered the call of God to leave all that is comfortable and familiar and go out into the world not knowing where he went to create a new people of God.

Jesus is the true and better Isaac, who was not just offered up by his father on the mount but was truly sacrificed for us. And when God said to Abraham, “Now I know you love me because you did not withhold your son, your only son whom you love from me, “Now we know that you love us because you did not withhold your Son, your only Son, whom you love, from us.”

Jesus is the true and better Jacob, who wrestled and took the blow of justice we deserved, so we, like Jacob, only receive the wounds of grace to wake us up and discipline us. Jesus is the true and better Joseph, who, at the right hand of the king, forgives those who betrayed him and sold him, and uses his new power to save them. Jesus is the true and better Moses, who stands in the gap between the people and the Lord and who mediates a new covenant. Jesus is the true and better Rock of Moses, who, struck with the rod of God’s justice, now gives us living water in the desert. Jesus is the true and better Joshua, who leads us into a land of eternal rest and heavenly blessing. Jesus is the true and better Ark of the Covenant, who topples and disarms idols of this world, going Himself into enemy territory, and making an open spectacle of them all. Jesus is the true and better Job, the truly innocent sufferer, who then intercedes for and saves his stupid friends. Jesus is the true and better David, whose victory becomes his people’s victory, though they never lifted a stone to accomplish it themselves.

Jesus is the true and better Esther, who didn’t just risk leaving an earthly palace but lost the ultimate and heavenly one, who didn’t just risk his life, but gave his life to save his people. Jesus is the true and better Daniel, who, having been lowered into a lion’s den of death, emerged early the next morning alive and vindicated by His God.

Jesus is the true and better Jonah, who was cast into the storm so that we safely could be brought in.

Jesus is the real Passover Lamb, innocent, perfect, helpless, slain, so the angel of death will pass over us. He’s the true temple, the true prophet, the true priest, the true king, the true sacrifice, the true lamb, the true light, and the true bread.

The Bible really is not about you is it? – It really is all about Him.

Application of the Scriptures flows out of our posture in Bible reading and study. Yielding a practical help for Bible reading and study, the five questions below are not only the main points of good hermeneutics (Bible interpretation), but are helpful with intentionality of good posture. Use these questions to redirect attention away from self and toward God.

  • What does this text teach me about God?
  • What does this text teach me about fallen humanity?
  • How does this text point to Christ?
  • What does God want me to know?
  • What does God want me to do?

Reflect on your posture when coming to the Bible.

  • My goals in posture when coming to the Bible are…
  • As a result of a proper view of Scripture, my hope is…
  • My prayer for posture in my personal Bible reading and study is…

All sources for this series are listed here:

Bible Study, Doctrine & Disciplines of the Bible Series, Theological Study, Theology, Uncategorized

Doctrine & Disciplines of the Bible, Part Five

Authority & Sufficiency of the Scriptures

In Doctrine & Disciplines of the Bible, Part Four – Inerrancy & Infallibility of the Scriptures, we determined that the Bible, as God’s voice, is true and reliable in all the matters it addresses. As we explore authority and sufficiency of Scripture, one must consider that not only does God speak through the Bible, but the Bible teaches that in His sufficient words, He has ultimate, comprehensive, final authority. Therefore, God has the right to command our thoughts, desires, beliefs, words, actions, and overall behavior.

Authority (n): The right to command behavior.

  • Leviticus 19:1-4; 1 Peter 1:15-16
  • Numbers 23:19
  • 2 Samuel 7:28
  • Psalm 12:6
  • Psalm 19:7-11
  • Matthew 28:18
  • 2 Timothy 3:15-17 
  • Jude 1:25

The will of God in the Old as well as the New Testament Church was communicated openly to the people. In referencing Leviticus 19:1-4 and 1 Peter 1:15-16, what reasons are given for God’s authority over human behavior?

Which words in the final note of Jude’s epistle (1:25) indicate the times of authority of Jesus Christ?

Are your desires and actions in line with Scripture? Do you submit to the authority of Scripture for rebuke and correction (2 Timothy 3:15-17)?

Is your behavior determined by emotions, or by God’s Word? 

There is a strong relationship between the scriptures and their authority. If God has all authority, and the scriptures are His inspired, inerrant, infallible Word, it follows that the Bible carries the intrinsic authority of God Himself. If the Bible really contains the very words of God, true and reliable in every matter it addresses, then it brings ultimate authority on every matter it addresses (since God has ultimate authority). 

The inspiration, inerrancy, and infallibility of Scripture brings the conclusion that the Bible is the ultimate authority. The supremacy of Scripture qualifies it as a functional, instrumental, conferred, and traditional guidebook in every aspect of life. Affirming the authority of Scripture, the believer acknowledges the Bible’s property: It possesses the privilege to command what God’s people are to do, be, and believe. This affirmation also gives God the right to establish laws, give orders, demand obedience, and more. 

  • Proverbs 30:5
  • Psalm 119:140, 160
  • Isaiah 59:21
  • Matthew 22:29-33
  • John 16:13-15
  • 1 Corinthians 2:10-12
  • 1 Timothy 3:15
  • 1 John 2:20, 27

What benefits do you find in resting in the authority of Scripture? List them specifically from the above scriptures. (You should find many.)

Which specific words in the Psalms verses describe the Word as tried and true? 

In Matthew 22:29-33, the Sadducees only knew the Scriptures in a superficial sense. When this is the case in our own lives, can it lead to a failure of appreciation for what God can do?

What might be some examples where you have not placed confidence in God and appealed to different final authorities (other than God’s Word) for doctrine and life? What were the results and what might be the consequences?

If the Bible was fallible, it would obviously not be authoritative. In John 10:35, Jesus quotes Psalm 82:6. He viewed the Scriptures as authoritative and without error; this included, but was not limited to, His own teaching. Other biblical writers also considered the Scriptures authoritative: They were not just an authority, but the authority.

  • Psalm 82:6; John 10:35
  • Matthew 5:17-18, 22-44; 12:38-42; 19:4-5
  • Luke 4:1-13
  • Romans 10:11
  • James 2:23
  • 2 Peter 3:14-16

What is Jesus’ attitude toward the story of Jonah in Matthew 12:38-42? What is the general attitude toward this story today?

Are you quick to stand for truth in Scripture or does society’s low view of Scripture cause hesitation? How do Romans 10:11 and James 2:23 speak to this?

Kevin DeYoung writes, “Whether we realize it or not, we all give someone or something the last word – our parents, our culture, our community, our feelings, the government, peer-reviewed journals, opinion polls, impressions, or a holy book…For Christians, this authority is the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments.”

What in your life has become an authority that competes with the Bible? How can you practically live out confidence in the Bible?

Why is it important that the believer look to the Scriptures with the same view as Jesus and the biblical writers?

How should your view of biblical doctrines differ from a nonbeliever? Because authority can be abused, would a nonbeliever see talking about sufficiency and authority dangerous?

Charles Spurgeon penned, “To me the Bible is not God, but it is God’s voice, and I do not hear it without awe.”The Bible is indeed the Word of God, God’s own speech to us. Confirmed when we read the Bible, God does speak to us today, and he speaks effectively. In his Systematic Theology, Wayne Grudem writes, “it is important to realize that the final form in which Scripture remains authoritative is its written form…Truth is what God says, and we have what God says…in the Bible…Therefore, to disbelieve or disobey any word of Scripture is to disbelieve or disobey God himself.” Scripture contains all the words of God that He intended his people to have at each stage of redemptive history. Now, it contains everything that we need God to tell us for salvation, trusting him perfectly, and obeying. God does not require us to believe anything about himself or his work that is not in the Scriptures.

  • Deuteronomy 29:29
  • 1 Corinthians 2:1-16

In reading 1 Corinthians 2:1-16, list some comparative sources of worldly wisdom today. What do you believe would be Paul’s response? What is your own? 

How does your view of the Doctrine of Authority and Sufficiency of the Scriptures affect your theology (living out truth in Scripture)?

“Sufficiency is an attribute of Scripture whereby it provides everything that people need to be saved and everything that Christians need to please God fully. Necessity is an attribute of Scripture whereby it is essential for knowing the way of salvation, for progressing in holiness, and for discerning God’s will.” – Dr. Gregg R. Allison

How is uncertainty prompted by your time and energy being spent consuming sources outside of Scripture?

If no other source is promised to us as God’s revelation, if God sufficiently reveals himself in the Bible, why would we spend our time elsewhere?

Do you have a tendency to place undue emphasis on the Spirit of God, causing neglection of the Word of God?

As a whole, Christians today have developed a preoccupation with mysticism regarding the Spirit of God, indirectly undermining the sufficiency of God’s Word. Claims of power in positivity and psychology are making inroads into the church. This is sometimes in subtle ways, but nonetheless, they make the statement that the Bible is to one degree or another inadequate. The Bible, energized by the Spirit, is sufficient for life and godliness. J.I. Packer writes, “Certainty about the great issues of Christian faith and conduct is lacking all along the line. The outside observer sees us as staggering on from a gimmick to gimmick and stunt to stunt like so many drunks in a fog, not knowing at all where we are or which way we should be going. Preaching is hazy. Heads are muddled, hearts fret, doubts drain strength, uncertainty paralyzes action…we lack certainty.” 

Similarly, John MacArthur writes, “The reason we lack certainty is because we have a sinful view of Scripture. We do not any longer seem to believe that the Bible is sufficient for the life and conduct of the church. That is a sin, a sin of monstrous proportions to deny the sufficiency of the Word of God.” In addition, Chapter One of the 1647 London Baptist Westminster Confession of faith emphasizes, “Under the name of holy Scripture, or the Word of God written, are now contained all the books of the Old and New Testaments…All which are given by inspiration of God, to be the rule of faith and life.”

  • Psalm 33:10
  • Proverbs 14:12
  • Isaiah 29:14
  • Luke 16:16, 29-31
  • 1 Corinthians 1:18-24
  • Ephesians 2:20
  • 2 Timothy 3:16

Considering Psalm 33:10, does God’s way stand in contrast of human wisdom?

Regarding Proverbs 14:12, would pride play a part in our lack of certainty?

In the Luke passage, Abraham points to the Scriptures. What significance is there to Moses’ writings and the “Prophets?”

How would 1 Corinthians 1:18-24 define a spiritual person? In contrast, how is a spiritual person defined today? What truth might be seen as folly? 

Read Ephesians 2:20. What is the significance of a cornerstone in permanence? 

In 2 Timothy 3:16, what rule of faith and life do you find?

When we read, sit, or study under “Christian” teaching, we should have a healthy skepticism —  If teaching is not solely by the Word of God, it may be error. Truth resides first in God, and men only know truth as they come to God’s revelation of Himself as the source of truth. Danny Akin of Southeastern Seminary states, “We must take our stand on the firm foundation of the inerrant and infallible Word of God affirming it’s sufficiency in all matters.” The sufficiency of Scripture means that the Bible is a comprehensive source of biblical truth, so that a believer has all she needs to glorify God in every situation. All the words in the Bible are God’s words: This is what Scripture claims for itself, and we are convinced by way of the Holy Spirit that Scripture is God’s Word as we read.

  • Matthew 5:17-18
  • John 10:35
  • Romans 1:18
  • 1 Corinthians 2:13-14
  • Titus 2:1-5
  • 2 Peter 1:2-4, 20-21; 2:13, 19-20

Does your reading and study begin with prayer or does it result in spiritual deadness, an overemphasis on printed words to the point of dismissal of the Spirit of God?

What warning is given in Matthew 5:17-18?

Referencing Romans 1:18, where might you see the truth suppressed in today’s world? Be specific. 

We learn sound doctrine in the Scriptures. As the church, we pass on what is taught by the Spirit. Worldly wisdom is not our measure of Truth (1 Corinthians 2:13-14). Are you able to discern false teachers?

Do you guard your heart and mind in your hearing, reading, and study? Are you attune to sound doctrine (Titus 2:1-5)?

What would be the “promises” in 2 Peter 1:2-4?

In his Systematic Theology, John Frame writes, “Scripture is God’s testimony to the redemption he has accomplished for us. Once that redemption is finished, and the apostolic testimony to it is finished, the Scriptures are complete, and we should expect no more additions to them.”

  • Deuteronomy 4:2
  • Proverbs 30:6

Do you recognize the completeness of the Scriptures as indicated in Deuteronomy 4:2? 

Referencing Deuteronomy 4:2 and Proverbs 30:6, what would be one way to identify a false teacher? 

Explain how your belief and living out sufficiency of Scripture might look different from that of a nonbeliever confronted with life’s problems.

Wayne Grudem states, “The biblical teaching about the sufficiency of Scripture gives us confidence that we will be able to find what God requires us to think or to do in [hundreds of moral and doctrinal] areas.” When Paul was meeting with the Ephesian elders, he “kept back nothing that was profitable unto [them].” Though life’s issues might’ve looked differently or called by a different name, biblical characters all had the same struggles we have; they had all the spiritual needs we have. There is no need to add to Scripture to meet today’s challenges, or to subtract from it to mesh with today’s worldly, man-centered ideals. The Word itself is profitable and will strengthen the believer and the church.  It is perfect and complete; in Christ, revelation is complete. Scripture emphasizes its completeness and forbids addition or subtraction from itself.

Recently deceased, David Powlison (counselor and past Executive Director for CCEF), wrote much on Scripture’s sufficiency: “But when people with crammed Bibles speak of Scripture’s sufficiency they mean…Something living and active, inexhaustibly rich, comprehensive and relevant, is sufficient for a very complex job…I am persuaded that the Bible teaches us how to go about practical, face-to-face ministry with people. Scripture is filled to overflowing with God’s face and presence, with insight, explanations, stories, instructions, promises, and implications…God is in the business of weather, anxiety, politics, heartache, money, inter-personal conflict, what you do on your day off, and how you react to suffering!”

  • John 14:26; 16:13-15
  • Acts 20:20-32
  • 2 Timothy 3:16-17
  • Revelation 22:18-19

Beyond the obvious and referencing John 14:26, why is it vital that we spend time in the Word?

John 16:13-15 confirms who receives glory from the Spirit of Truth. Explain why this might be important to remember.

In your own words, summarize the Acts passage where Paul is speaking to the Ephesian elders. Why would his words be important for us today?

What warning is found in Revelation 22:18-19? How serious is this offense?

Grudem refers again to sufficiency, “…does mean that when we are facing a problem of genuine importance to our Christian life, we can approach Scripture with confidence that from it God will provide us with guidance for that problem.” MacArthur writes, “Scripture is the manual for all soul work and is so comprehensive in the diagnosis and treatment of every spiritual matter that, energized by the Holy Spirit in the believer, it leads to making one like Jesus Christ. This is the process of biblical sanctification.”

Paul taught the Colossians to be encouraged by the understanding and knowledge of God’s mystery in Christ. In this mystery are hidden all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge. We are rooted in Him, and we are going to be built up in Him. As Paul tells the Galatians, we are “complete” in Him.

  • Psalm 19:7-11
  • Colossians 2:2-3
  • 2 Timothy 1:13-14
  • 2 Peter 1:3

What reward do you find in Psalm 19:7-11? Explain.

Referencing Colossians 2:2-3, how might you avoid delusion by plausible arguments?

What is the “deposit” to which we’ve been entrusted (2 Timothy 1:13-14)?

“There is no situation in which we as men of God are placed, no demand that arises for which Scripture as the deposit of the manifold wisdom of God is not adequate and sufficient,” concludes John Murray. We have a preference for-and have become used to-the immediate, but the key is to believe the Bible, obey Scripture, and study the Word. It takes time.

What about extrabiblical writings between the testaments, or in addition to them? Again from the Westminster Confession, “The books commonly called Apocrypha, not being of divine inspiration, are no part of the Canon of the Scripture; and therefore are of no authority in the Church of God, nor to be any otherwise approved, or made use of, than other human writings…The authority of the holy Scripture, for which it ought to be believed and obeyed, dependeth not upon the testimony of any man or church, but wholly upon God (who is truth itself), the Author thereof; and therefore it is to be received, because it is the Word of God.” 

And from article six of the Belgic confession, regarding the difference between the canonical and apocryphal books: “We distinguish between these holy books and the apocryphal ones, which are the third and fourth books of Esdras; the books of Tobit, Judith, Wisdom, Jesus Sirach, Baruch; what was added to the Story of Esther; the Song of the Three Children in the Furnace; the Story of Susannah; the Story of Bell and the Dragon; the Prayer of Manasseh; and the two books of Maccabees. The church may certainly read these books and learn from them as far as they agree with the canonical books. But they do not have such power and virtue that one could confirm from their testimony any point of faith or of the Christian religion. Much less can they detract from the authority of the other holy books.” 

Protestants simply cannot accept innovations like papal infallibility, purgatory, and such doctrines not found in the Word of God, which contradict what is revealed in the canon of Scripture, though we still must respect our Catholic friends and be thankful for some aspects of their faith. In our unwavering allegiance to Sola Scriptura (Scripture alone)we affirm the implicit understanding of sufficiency. 

  • Luke 24:27 & 44
  • Romans 3:2
  • 1 Thessalonians 2:13
  • 2 Timothy 3:16
  • 2 Peter 1:19-21; 3:15-18
  • 1 John 5:9-12

How do Luke 24:27 and 44 recognize the Old Testament pointing to Jesus? 

In Romans 3:2, who would be included in “much in every way?” Why is this important to  note?

Whether by hearing or reading, 1 Thessalonians 2:13 is a reminder that the Scriptures are not merely the words of men. Why is this significant to understand, regarding the importance in both the early church and today?

When Peter speaks of the “prophetic word” in 2 Peter 1:19-21, what writings does he refer to? 

Referring to 2 Peter 3:15-18, why is it essential that we grow in grace and knowledge? Explain how Peter directs us regarding things “hard to understand.”

The canon of Scripture consists of sixty-six books. Are you confident in the closed canon of Scripture? 

What attitude do you have toward the Apocrypha, or even other books deemed holy?

If the Bible is the sufficient voice of God and the canon is closed, what place does prophecy or personal revelation deserve?

Should your attitude warrant further study of the Doctrine of the Canonicity of Scripture? If so, consider not only the historical process, the criteria of the canon, as well as the Holy Spirit’s activity in helping the church navigate the process.

Scripture itself is the most effective means for support of our confidence in the Bible as the closed canon of Scripture. Kevin DeYoung aptly writes, “You can’t establish the supreme authority of your supreme authority by going to some other lesser authority. Yes, the logic is circular [referring to what the Bible says about the Bible], but no more so than the secularist defending reason by reason or the scientist touting the authority of science based on science.”

“Scripture itself is alone competent to judge our doctrine of Scripture.” – J.I. Packer

The sufficiency of Scripture means that the Bible is a comprehensive source of biblical truth such that a believer has all that he needs to glorify God in every situation. We can rest assured that the Scripture is “God-breathed, profitable for teaching, reproof, correction, and training in righteousness”. Scripture prepares us for every good work and makes us ready for service.

How are doctrinal standards upheld by the church through the ages lived out in your personal life?

Do you recognize Scripture at the heart of every ministry of the church?

How does doctrine serve as framework for your belief, practice, and service?

In addition, the doctrine of Sola Scriptura teaches us that the Bible is the final authority for our beliefs and practices. The aforementioned is more thoroughly explained in the Belgic Confession (among the oldest of doctrinal standards): “We believe that this Holy Scripture contains the will of God completely and that everything one must believe to be saved is sufficiently taught in it. For since the entire manner of service which God requires of us is described in it at great length, no one– even an apostle or an angel from heaven, as Paul says– ought to teach other than what the Holy Scriptures have already taught us. For since it is forbidden to add to or subtract from the Word of God, this plainly demonstrates that the teaching is perfect and complete in all respects. Therefore we must not consider human writings– no matter how holy their authors may have been– equal to the divine writings; nor may we put custom, nor the majority, nor age, nor the passage of time or persons, nor councils, decrees, or official decisions above the truth of God, for truth is above everything else.” 

  • Deuteronomy 12:32
  • Galatians 1:6-10
  • 1 John 4:1
  • 2 John 10-11
  • Revelation 22:18-19

What are the consequences of wrong doing found in Deuteronomy 12:32 and Revelation 22:18-19?

What does Galatians 1:6-10 remind us in guarding the truth of the gospel? How does the gospel we believe identify us?

Of what (or who) must we beware in 1 John 4:1 and 2 John 10 & 11? Does this pertain to us today?

However, sufficiency means the Bible is comprehensive…not exhaustive. Sufficiency also does not mean that application of Scripture requires no additional knowledge. Sinclair Ferguson explains, “The Scriptures do not tell us everything about everything. They provide no instruction about computer programming, or how best to organize a library, the correct way to swing a golf club, or how to play chess. They do not tell us how far away the sun is from the earth, what DNA is, how best to remove an appendix surgically, the best coffee to drink, or the name of the person we should marry…Scripture is sufficient to give me a rational ground for thinking about anything and everything on the assumption that this world and everything in it make sense. Further, no matter what my calling or abilities, the Scriptures are sufficient to teach me principles that will enable me to think and act in a God-honouring way when I am engaged in any activity or vocation.” We discover God’s will in areas nonspecific to the Bible by the careful and ongoing application of the principles, commands, and illustrations we find in Scripture to the life situations in which we find ourselves. Biblical wisdom makes us strong and stable.

  • Deuteronomy 29:29
  • Romans 12:1-2; 13:1
  • 2 Corinthians 11:14

In an exhortation to obedience and recorded history of God’s dealings with Israel, what are the “secret things” in Deuteronomy 29?  

Read Romans 12:1-2. Explain how biblical wisdom makes us strong and stable.

Read Romans 13:1. What should the Christian understand regarding secular authorities? Who is the ultimate authority to whom we are to have submission? How would acting in this manner be God-honoring?

God has provided a safe pathway for us in the sufficiency of his written word. Are you mature enough to know how to distinguish the work of the Spirit from the influence of the enemy who might appear as an “angel of light,” 2 Corinthians 11:14?

Sufficiency does not mean that extrabiblical knowledge is never helpful, and does not mean that the Bible is a textbook of facts.The biblical view is a lens through which we must understand and interpret life, people, problems, and solutions, as each situation intersects with the God who made all things. 

Scripture is not only sufficient, it is necessary. “Ignorance of Scripture is ignorance of Christ.” – Jerome (early church father) rightly observed. Faith in Christ comes from knowing the gospel. Progress in faith requires nourishing oneself on the Word of God. We need the Bible to develop maturity and service. We need the Bible because it is totally reliable and useful for all of life. Truth from the Word can bring us blessings of life in every dimension. 

  • John 17:14-17
  • Romans 10:13-17
  • 1 Peter 2:1-3
  • 2 Peter 3:16-17

As with the disciples (John 17:14-17), would it not be God’s desire that we should be distinguished from the world by our attitudes and acceptance of God’s word?

Considering Romans 10:13-17, what is the focus and goal of the sufficient Scriptures?

In reading 1 Peter 2:1-3, how can you be nourished by the Lord?

In reading 2 Peter 3:16-17, is all of Scripture equally understandable? Should a believer strive to develop better understanding of the difficult passages?

If Scripture is the final authority, exactly how reliable is it as authority on which we should base the whole of our lives?

In addition to authority and sufficiency, the Doctrines of Clarity and Necessity of Scripture pave the way for reading and study in such a way that the Bible is able to be understood by all who will read and are seeking God’s will to follow it (Deuteronomy 6:6-7). The Bible is necessary for knowledge of the gospel and maintaining spiritual life and certain knowledge of God’s will (Matthew 4:4). Because the way of salvation is found only in the Bible, we must know the Scriptures to appreciate and properly communicate the gospel.

“What if I say the Bible is God’s holy Word, complete, inspired without a flaw? But let its pages stay unread from day to day and fail to learn there from God’s law. What if I go not there to seek the truth of which I glibly speak for guidance in this earthly way? Does it matter what I say?” – Maude Frazier Jackson

Reflect on your attitudes and beliefs regarding the Doctrine of Authority and Sufficiency of Scripture.

  • My goal in recognizing the authority and sufficiency of Scripture is…
  • As a result of the closed canon, I hope to make adjustments in my life that would be…
  • My prayer concerning these doctrines is…

All sources for this series are listed here:

Bible Study, Doctrine & Disciplines of the Bible Series, Theological Study, Theology, Uncategorized

Doctrine & Disciplines of the Bible, Part Four

Inerrancy & Infallibility of the Scriptures

In Inspiration of the Scriptures, part three of Doctrines & Disciplines of the Bible, we established the importance of a right theology, affirming trustworthiness of the Bible by way of its divine inspiration. Proper understanding of this doctrine demands affirmation of inerrancy and infallibility. If we claim our Lord and Savior to be Jesus Christ, and that Jesus himself affirmed the inerrancy of Scripture, we must accordingly embrace the Scriptures as true and right.

The Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy was ultimately produced by the meeting of three hundred preeminent evangelical leaders. This council’s purpose was to bring awareness of the battle for the Bible and to take a stand on the issue whose problem became prevalent even within evangelical Christianity. I refer you back to that statement here:,%20Sec%2023.pdf

How would you define biblical inerrancy? Why is biblical inerrancy so critical to our walk with Christ?

Is the issue of biblical inerrancy today equally as important to the world as it was in 1978? How might you see this battle for the Bible continue?

If we, as fallible human beings, penned the Bible, how can this book be free from error?

Why should doctrine of inerrancy and infallibility matter to me right now? How might a prideful attitude towards inerrancy and infallibility present itself in our habitual Bible reading and studies?

From the time the canon of Scripture was closed in the first century, God’s Word is, and always has been, the means by which God speaks to the church. In the times of the Old Testament, God spoke to his people in various ways. On occasion, He spoke to people directly. God primarily communicated to the people of Israel through prophets: Human beings just like us, who received their information from God. A common phrase heard from these prophets was, “Thus says the Lord.” 

The counterpart to the Old Testament prophet was the New Testament Apostle. The apostle received a direct call by Christ; the term apostle itself means one who is sent or commissioned with the authority of the one doing the sending. They are Christ’s emissaries, given His authority to speak on his behalf. Knowing the backstory plays an important role in gaining full understanding of how the Bible functions today. 

  • Mark 3:14
  • John 14:26; 16:13-14; 17:17
  • Acts 5:29-32

Read Jonah 3:1-5, then read Matthew 10:40-41 and 12:39-41. What is the “something greater than Jonah” in these passages? Why is this Old Testament/New Testament connection significant?

Which word or words in John 5:45-47 give Jesus’ own credibility to the writings of Moses?

In Ephesians 2:19-21, what part does Jesus Christ play in the “whole structure?” Who would be the “foundation?” Why would this be critical?

Read Romans 1:1-5 and 1 Corinthians 1:1. Why was it essential that Paul be identified as an apostle?

Al Mohler, distinguished president of Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, states, “Inerrancy is nothing less than the affirmation that the Bible, as the Word of God written, is totally true and totally trustworthy. When the Bible speaks, God speaks. This is the Bible’s own testimony about itself, and it is the historic faith of the Christian church.” As the Bride of Christ, we are called to trust everything Scripture affirms.

  • Psalm 12:6; 18:30; 19:8
  • Proverbs 30:5
  • John 10:35; 14:26; 16:13-14
  • Hebrews 6:18

We are a fickle people, but God is not like us. In Numbers 23:19 we find the counsels and promises of God respecting Israel are unchangeable. How are you reminded of your calling to Truth in Numbers 23:19? How is God not like us in regard to Truth?

What unique qualities of God’s words are described in the Psalms verses? List them.

In reference to Proverbs 30:5 as well as the John passages, what way might you benefit from God’s Truth?

What aspect of God’s character do you find in Hebrews 6:18? Why is this pointed out?

The reliability of the Word confronts our tendency to be relativists – our culture would have us believe nothing is true in an absolute sense. As stated in the Chicago Statement, “Inerrant signifies the quality of being free from all falsehood or mistake and so safeguards the truth that the Holy Scripture is entirely true and trustworthy in all its assertions.”  Inerrancy means the Bible is without error in the original manuscripts. Infallibility means that the Bible is “true and reliable in all the matters it addresses…Infallible signifies the quality of neither misleading nor being misled and so safeguards in categorical terms the truth that Holy Scripture is a sure, safe, and reliable rule and guide in all matters.” Infallibility logically flows from inerrancy. Since the Bible is without error (inerrancy), it is reliable (infallible) in all that it teaches. It cannot fail or be inaccurate. In common practice, the terms inerrancy and infallibility are often used synonymously.

How do you see the correlation between the Doctrine of Inspiration of Scripture and the Doctrine of Inerrancy and infallibility?

Does your view of inerrancy reserve a high view of divine action among human beings, as seen in the superintending action in the writings of Scripture?

How can we affirm inerrancy of the Bible in a world claiming it to be full of errors? How can Christians become more certain of biblical inerrancy?

Since the Bible is God’s voice, literally God breathed revelation (inspiration), and God cannot lie, the conclusion would be that the Bible is without error. “God is true; the Scriptures were breathed out by God; therefore, the Scriptures are true (since they came from the breath of God who is true)” writes Charles Ryrie. The Bible declares itself to be inerrant. Jesus noted that the whole of Scripture (“law”), down to even a portion of one letter, would not pass away until all was accomplished.”

  • Psalm 19:7
  • Matthew 5:18; 22:29
  • Romans 3:4
  • Titus 1:1-3

As God’s testimony for the truth, what function(s) of His Word is described in Psalm 19:7?

What are the dangers of not believing the Bible to be inerrant? Refer to Matthew 22:29.

What is the contrast of God and man seen in Romans 3:4?

Where is the Christian hope rooted (Titus 1:1-3)?

Author Timothy Ward writes, “The idea that the Bible is ‘infallible’ means that it does not deceive. To say that the Bible is ‘inerrant’ is to make the additional claim that it does not assert any errors of fact: whether the Bible refers to events in the life of Christ, or to other details of history and geography, what it asserts is true.” A classic statement of the inerrant view would be in the Chicago Statement’s twelfth article: “We affirm that Scripture in its entirety is inerrant, being free from all falsehood, fraud, or deceit. We deny that biblical infallibility or inerrancy are limited to spiritual, religious or redemptive themes, exclusive of assertions in the field of history and science.”

How does the Bible correspond with reality?

Do you trust everything the Scriptures affirm, beginning with creation?

Critics of inerrancy often misunderstand the concept when applied to the Bible. Scripture employs ordinary speech and everyday language. Loose quotations are at times paraphrased, summarized, or alluded to. The Bible can be inerrant and still include loose or free quotations.

  • Genesis 1:16-18
  • Numbers 12:7
  • Psalm 104:4
  • Hebrew 1:7 & 3:2 

Other things to consider would be the fact that Jesus taught in Aramaic, and the New Testament is written in Greek. We find a different ordering of events, not necessarily chronological, though events recorded are the same. Variant accounts relate the same event in the Gospels but often present with significant differences. Inerrancy is consistent with these variations. Inerrancy still allows for variety in style, variety in details in explaining the same event, and does not insist on the verbatim reporting of events. To the contrary, inerrancy requires that the account does not teach error or contradiction. 

  • Matthew 4:1-11; 8:5-13; 27:1-10
  • Luke 4:1-13; 7:1-10  
  • Acts 1:15-19 (note the parenthesis)

Comparison with the Luke and Matthew accounts does not indicate clear contradiction. What are your observations on the variety in details of the same events?

The awkwardness of the parenthesis in the acts passage noted the number in Jewish law required to establish community and thus, an interruption in the story. Should the reader see this as added information or pertinent to the text?

In his Pilgrim Theology, Michael Horton writes, “Inerrancy does not mean that the human authors were exhaustive or exact. God spoke to his people at different times, in their own context, and according to their ordinary capacities. We should not impose modern standards of exactitude on ancient texts. There are discrepancies in reports, which one would expect of any series of witnesses in a courtroom, but these are due to different perspectives (as in witnessing a traffic accident) rather than to error.”

The Bible is uniquely infallible. The church historically confirms that out of all the written literature in history, the Bible alone is seen as infallible. It has not yet failed, and will not ever fail due to God’s character. It is “that which cannot fail.” Infallible means that something is incapable of making a mistake. Truthfulness, inerrancy, and infallibility is seen in the high view of Scripture in the Old Testament and the New. 

  • Psalm 18:30
  • Isaiah 55:11
  • Matthew 19:3-6; 24:36-39
  • John 5:45-47; 10:35; 14:26; 16:13 & 17:17
  • 1 Corinthians 2:10-13

Use Hebrews 6:18 and Titus 1:2 for clarifying that it is impossible for God to lie.

Referencing Psalm 18:30, in trusting the Scriptures, are we trusting God himself?

Jesus used historical events in the Old Testament in a manner that showed total confidence in their facts. He acknowledged that in creation, Adam and Eve were two living human beings, not merely symbols of man and woman who acted in specific ways. He verified and authenticated Noah’s flood, and on more than one occasion, the destruction of Sodom. Jesus accepted the story of Jonah as truth, and accepted historicity of Isaiah, Elijah, Daniel, Abel, Zechariah, David, Moses and his writings, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Christ’s authentication of these events should serve us well in our own trusting, even including many of these controversial passages. If our Lord felt he had a reliable Bible, we too can have confidence it is historically true and every word is reliable.

  • Matthew 8:4; John 5:46
  • Matthew 8:11; John 8:39-41 
  • Matthew 10:15; Luke 17:28-29
  • Matthew 12:17 & 40
  • Matthew 17:11-12
  • Matthew 19:3-5; Mark 10:6-8
  • Matthew 22:45
  • Matthew 23:35
  • Matthew 24:15
  • Matthew 24:38-39; Luke 17:26-27

As you work through the verses, note verification and authenticity of their historicity.

Where do you see correlation in the Matthew passages to the paired writings in the other Gospels?

In your own words, how can we have greater confidence in reliability of the Scriptures from reading and believing the above passages?

Every Christian doctrine is drawn from the Bible. In the words of R.C. Sproul, “When we say the Bible is the only rule of faith and practice, it is because we believe this rule has been delegated by the Lord, whose rule it is. Therefore, we say that the Bible is inerrant and infallible.” God always speaks the truth. Not only does he not lie, but he cannot lie. “The Bible is the Word of God, and God cannot err. So, to deny inerrancy, rightly understood, is to attack the very character of God. Those who deny inerrancy, soon enter the dangerous terrain of denying all Scriptural authority for both doctrine and practice,” writes Ravi Zacharias. 

Therefore, the Bible speaks accurately in all its statements. Paul Enns writes in The Moody Handbook of Theology, “Inerrancy is reflected in translations. Interestingly, through the science of textual critics (collating some 5,700 ancient Greek manuscripts), we have what is essentially the original reading of the Scriptures, and we can authoritatively use our translations in proclaiming the Word of God.”

  • Numbers 23:19
  • 2 Timothy 3:16

Why is the Doctrine of Inerrancy and Infallibility foundational for the Christian faith?

How does the church affirm the Bible’s infallibility?

Can a mature Christian really believe the Bible contains error?

How might you use Matthew 4:1-11 in defense of inerrancy and infallibility of the Bible?

How do Matthew 4:4 and 2 Timothy 3:16 support the fact that God is true, God breathed out the Bible, and the Bible is true?

In his Systematic Theology, Wayne Grudem writes, “The problems that come with a denial of biblical inerrancy are not insignificant, and when we understand the magnitude of these problems it gives us further encouragement not only to affirm inerrancy but also to affirm its importance for the church.” One of the problems Grudem lists worth noting is, “If we deny inerrancy, we essentially make our own human minds a higher standard of truth than God’s Word itself…this is in effect to say that we know truth more certainly and more accurately than God’s Word does (or than God does), at least in these areas. Such a procedure, making our own minds to be a higher standard of truth than God’s Word, is the root of all intellectual sin.”

“Inerrancy means that we have a Bible that is completely trustworthy, reliable, and without error in its original form. As we study it, we can eagerly anticipate answers to the questions that are essential.” writes DTS Professor Howard Hendricks.

In what ways does the infallibility of Scripture urge the church to be hopeful while we patiently wait?

How does inerrancy of the Scriptures urge believers to communicate the gospel?

“The claim that the Bible is inerrant is a conclusion drawn directly from what Scripture says about God, and about itself in relation to God. Scripture says that is breathed out by God, as his own words. In addition, in Scripture God states with great clarity that his character is such that he cannot lie, and that he alone is utterly truthful and trustworthy. The conclusion that the Bible is inerrant is essentially derived from linking these two related truths closely together,” writes Ward. God has chosen to tie Scripture to himself (see Hebrews 6:17-18). Upholding the Doctrine of Inerrancy and Infallibility, we can stand with the church in trusting all Scripture. 

As a result of inspiration, inerrancy, and infallibility, all of Scripture is trustworthy. The Bible can be inerrant and still speak the ordinary language of our everyday speech. In human language through His Scriptures, God has spoken. Like a father talking to his children, God has humbled himself by using frail mortals to communicate this infallible word. Realizing this, when we open the text, we should humbly bow before the Lord and pray that through it we will hear as God is speaking through the working of the Word.

“To demonstrate trust in the inerrant Word of God is to exhibit faith in the One who spoke life into existence. History and human nature prove the truth of the Bible every day, but the greatest evidence is seen in changed lives that cannot be denied. This infallible Book is its own great commentary: ‘The entirety of Your word, Lord is truth’ (Psalm 119:160).” – Franklin Graham.

Reflect on the Doctrine of Inerrancy and Infallibility of Scripture.

  • My goals for informing my theology with the reality of inerrancy and infallibility are…
  • As a result of hope for the church, resting in infallibility of Scripture, I hope…
  • My prayer regarding the Doctrine of Inerrancy and Infallibility of God’s Word in relation to the gospel is…

All sources for this series are listed here:

Bible Study, Doctrine & Disciplines of the Bible Series, Theological Study, Theology, Topical Study

Doctrine & Disciplines of the Bible, Part Three

Inspiration of the Scriptures

In Part Two, Trustworthiness of the Scriptures, emphasis was placed on theological integrity: We must place our trust in the Scriptures, just as the church has maintained over time. Approaching our reading and study of the Scriptures rightly comes first with an accurate understanding of doctrinal truths. Sound doctrine reflects in summary what the Word affirms and what the church is bound to believe. Good theology reflects sound doctrine and stands in direct contrast to false doctrine. Sound doctrine of the Word of God is the foundation of all good theology. 

God’s Word is trustworthy. It conveys what is true and demands what is right. Affirmation of the inspiration of the Bible furthers Christians’ maturity in their attitudes toward the Scriptures, the truthful voice of God. 

  • Deuteronomy 30:11-14
  • Psalm 33:6-9
  • Psalm 119:75, 89, 96, & 160
  • John 17:17
  • Acts 4:25 

In what way would the Doctrine of Inspiration of Scripture affirm the Bible’s trustworthiness?

If all Scripture (every book, chapter, line, and word) is breathed out, where is the source of Scripture’s inspiration from?

Affirmed in Acts 4:25, David was God’s mouthpiece. How do the Psalm 119 verses characterize God’s Word? List specifics.

God’s Word is holy, showing his lordship attributes. Using Psalm 33:6-9, how would you describe this?

What do we mean when we say, the Bible is inspired by God? “We do not mean that every sentence in it is inspiring. Many are; but some are also very mundane. Sometimes the apparently mundane turns out to be wonderfully inspiring. Read as it is meant to be, as the story of God’s plan unfolding from the time of Abraham until the coming of Christ, and it turns out to be a thrilling survey of God’s sovereign Lordship over history. But inspiration does not mean the Bible is inspiring like a beautiful and moving symphony or a deeply poignant poem. In fact when Paul wrote that all Scripture is ‘inspired by God,’ he was not thinking about its effect on us, but about its source in him,” Sinclair Ferguson explains. 

The term inspiration is drawn from the older English translations of 2 Timothy 3:16. For example the Geneva Bible of 1560 rendered Paul’s words, “The whole Scripture is given by inspiration of God.” In defining inspiration, Wayne Grudem writes that inspiration refers to, “the fact that the words of Scripture are spoken by God.” Theologian B. B. Warfield writes, “The Bible is the Word of God in such a way that when the Bible speaks, God speaks” (emphasis mine). Paul’s point in his writing is not that Scripture is inspiring to read (although, it can be), or that the authors were inspired (yet, they were), but that Scripture’s origin means it is the very Word of God.

“The Bible is the product of God’s own creative breath.” – Dr. Chuck Quarles

Have you found parts of Scripture to be inspiring at times?

We are not judges of God’s Word; God’s Word is contrarily judge of us. Have feelings of embarrassment caused you to ascribe to some portions of Scripture, but not to all? 

Is denial of the superintending work of the Holy Spirit in particular parts of the Bible a low view of divine action? Why or why not?

Consider the relationship of the Trinity to biblical inspiration. How would you define it?

Read Deuteronomy 30:11-14. What would be the benefits of spending time in the Word?

Historically, Christians have held to the view that God is the ultimate author of the Scriptures. Today, when a person breathes out their speech, it is in audible form. When God Almighty breathed out in speech long ago, His word was written down by the prophets and then the apostles. Inspiration extends to the writings, not merely the ideas — the words, not simply the word. It extends to the tenses of the verbs, the letters of the words, and the smallest parts of the letters. Summarized by the term verbal-plenary inspiration, it can be broken down into: verbal, meaning in its words, and plenary, meaning in its entirety. In relation to Scripture, Verbalemphasizes that the actual words are God-breathed, while Plenary emphasizes the fact that Scripture is equally God-breathed in all of its parts: Thus its inspiration is described as verbal-plenary.

  • Genesis 12:7
  • Exodus 3:6
  • Matthew 5:17-18; 22:31-32
  • John 10:35
  • Galatians 3:16

In your own words, what does verbal-plenary inspiration mean?

If someone’s view is denial of plenary (full) inspiration, what reliable criteria would decide which parts?

Do you see Jesus’ argument for the resurrection of the dead as a present-tense verb in Matthew 22:31-32, quoting Exodus 3:6?

Did you catch Paul’s argument in Galatians 3:16, in which he was quoting Genesis 12:7?

Does Scripture support itself concerning inspiration?

Paul Enns gives a description referencing the text itself inspired, and referring to quality of context, not the human author, “Inspiration may be defined as the Holy Spirit’s superintending over the writers to that while writing according to their own styles and personalities, the result was God’s Word written – authoritative, trustworthy, and free from error in the original autographs.”  In addition, Charles Spurgeon wrote, “You must accept the revelation as infallible, or you cannot unquestioningly believe in the God therein revealed. If you once give up inspiration, the foundations are removed, and all building is laborious trifling. How are the promises the support of faith if they are themselves questionable?” 

From Article VI of the Chicago Statement, “We affirm that the whole of Scripture in all its parts, down to the very words of the original, were given by divine inspiration. We deny that the inspiration of Scripture can rightly affirmed of the whole without the parts, or of some parts but not the whole.” 

  • Genesis 2:7
  • 2 Timothy 3:15-17
  • 2 Peter 3:16

Psalm 119 and 2 Timothy 3:15-17 run through the entirety of this series. In your own words, paraphrase 2 Timothy 3:15-17. 

In 1 Timothy 3:15-17, Paul is encouraging Timothy to continue in the teachings he has received. Paul makes the assumption that Timothy is familiar with the Scriptures and urges him to continue in them since they are divinely inspired. The impression here is that they are divinely produced, just as God breathed the breath of life into humans. Therefore, they carry value for building up the believer into maturity to be equipped for every good work. If we are to take Paul as our model for what it meant to be an apostle of Jesus Christ, then it would be fair to say that the New Testament (as well as the Old) is not merely from man but also from God. The writers of the Old Testament and the New Testament spoke as they were moved by the Spirit.

In the New Testament, a number of passages indicate that all of the Old Testament writings are thought of as God’s words. In his Systematic Theology, Wayne Grudem references 2 Timothy 3:15-16, “Paul here affirms that all of the Old Testament writings are theopneustos, ‘breathed out by God.’ Since it is writings that are said to be ‘breathed out,’ this breathing must be understood as a metaphor for speaking the words of Scripture. This verse thus states in brief form what was evident in many passages in the Old Testament: the Old Testament writings are regarded as God’s Word in written form. For every word of the Old Testament, God is the one who spoke (and still speaks) it, although God used human agents to write these words down.”  

  • Isaiah 7:14
  • Matthew 1:22

By context, “all Scripture” in 2 Timothy 3:16-17 refers properly to the 39 books of the Old Testament. Wayne Grudem writes, “In the context of Jesus’ repeated citations from Deuteronomy to answer every temptation, the words that proceed ‘from the mouth of God’ are the written Scriptures of the Old Testament.” However, the New Testament writings are elsewhere included with the Old Testament as Scripture. Therefore, all Old and New Testament writings are viewed as Scripture and thus both are considered “God breathed.” In other words, the Old and New Testaments are equally inspired and equally authoritative. When we turn to the early church’s preaching, we find similar understand of the Old Testament. This fits well with the prophets’ own testimonies. Again and again, they declared “Thus says the Lord.”     

  • Matthew 4:4
  • 2 Peter 1:16-21
  • 2 Peter 3:13-16
  • Deuteronomy 25:4; Luke 10:7; Acts 3:18-21; 1 Corinthians 9:8-14; 1 Timothy 5:8

Referencing Matthew 4:4, what is meant by living by every word that comes from the mouth of God? Does this encourage you?

The prophetic word would have been prior to Peter’s own eyewitness account. Regarding 2 Peter 1:19-21, where did Peter place his confidence?

Did what was seen on the mountain by Peter, James, and John confirm the prophetic word?

What three different terms are used when Peter is referring to the word of God in these verses?

In the Old Testament, we read in Exodus 34:27, “The Lord said…The word of the Lord came to the prophet…saying…Write down these words.” In Hebrews 1:1, we read “God, after He spoke long ago to the fathers in the prophets in many portions and in many ways…” We read Jesus’ use of the Old Testament in Matthew 1:22 citing Isaiah 7:14, in Matthew 4:4. Once again, Wayne Grudem reiterates, “the pattern of attributing to God the words of the Old Testament Scripture should be very clear.” 

  • Exodus 34:27
  • Isaiah 7:14
  • Deuteronomy 1:3
  • Matthew 1:22
  • Matthew 4:4
  • Matthew 5:17-18
  • John 10:35 (referring to Psalm 82:6)
  • Acts 4:24-26 (quoted Psalm 2:1-2)
  • Hebrews 1:1

The authors were divinely prepared to write God’s word in much the same way as the prophets were made ready to speak His word. Jesus himself gave the guarantee for what the apostles taught and wrote. Thus, promising the Holy Spirit for the New Testament writings in their truthful witness to him and his work. In the mechanics of inspiration, scripture is not a matter of the human author’s interpretation or explanation. Paul wrote some things difficult to understand. However, the rest of scriptures told us the letters are a part of the scriptures and the apostles recognized their authenticity. As we have established the very words of Scripture are God’s very words, the Bible is the word of God down to the smallest letter or even part of a letter.

  • John 14:26
  • Acts 4:21-26 (quoting Psalm 2:1-2)
  • 1 Corinthians 2:10-13
  • 1 Thessalonians 2:13 & 4:2

In the scriptures covered thus far, where do you find Old Testament evidence for the Doctrine of Inspiration of Scripture? New Testament evidence for this Doctrine?

Is inspiration uniform throughout the Bible or are there different degrees or differing levels of inspiration?  Support your answer.

Do you place emphasis on the red letter words of the Bible, seeing them as more fully inspired than the black? Why might this be an error?

The Book of Psalms slowly developed over an extended period of time and reflects the full spectrum of ordinary human experience and emotions. But it was under God’s loving superintendence the authors were given words by which to express every aspect of human experience. Inspiration is concursive– the Spirit and the human authors wrote together. Dr. Gregg Allison, Professor of Christian Theology at Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, adds, “The Spirit’s work was not just the influence of providential care or guidance that all Christians experience as they walk with God. Nor extend only to the thoughts or ideas in the minds of the human authors. This particular work of the Holy Spirit was unique to the prophets and Jesus considered that what Moses said, God himself said (Matthew 19:4-5. Quoting Moses’s comment about marriage [Genesis 2:24] and ascribing it to ‘he who created them’ that is, God).”

  • Genesis 2:24
  • Deuteronomy 1:3
  • Isaiah 8:11; 66:1
  • Jeremiah 30:4
  • Matthew 19:4-5
  • Acts 1:16
  • Acts 3:18, 21 & 4:25
  • 2 Samuel 23:2
  • Amos 3:1
  • Micah 4:4

Why can we not reduce the writing of Scripture to merely human work? 

Do you see Scripture’s own affirmation about itself being divinely inspired? List the verses.

In what ways does the Bible witness to its divine origins?

2 Peter 1, in verses 17-18 and 21, the word phero, is translated as “produced” in 21 or “borne” in 17 and 18. B.B. Warfield explains, “The term here used [for carried/borne] is a very specific one. It is not to be confounded with guiding, or directing, or controlling, or even leading in the full sense of that word. It goes beyond all such terms, in assigning the effect produced specifically to the active agent. What is ‘borne’ is taken up by the ‘bearer’ and conveyed by the ‘bearer’s’ power, not its own, to the ‘bearer’s goal, not its own. The men who spoke from God are here declared, therefore, to have been taken up by the Holy Spirit and brought by His power to the goal of His choosing. The things which they spoke under this operation of the Spirit were therefore His things, not theirs. And that is the reason which is assigned why ‘the prophetic word’ is so sure. Though spoken through the instrumentality of men, it is by virtue of the fact that these men spoke ‘as borne by the Holy Spirit,’ an immediately Divine word.”

  • Genesis 3:1-5
  • 2 Peter 1:17-21

Does the divine authorship of the Scriptures preclude the use of active human instrumentation?

Does human participation render the Scriptures any less perfect and divine?

In Genesis 3:1-5, Satan was the first to challenge God’s revelation. What challenges the Bible in your life?

Though God used men as His instruments to write Scripture, God is ultimately its author and source. The reason we call the Bible the Word of God is because it is, indeed, the very words that God wanted communicated. 2 Timothy 3:16-17 conveys the idea of God “breathing out” the Scriptures. Since the word for “breath” can also be translated “spirit,” we can easily see the work of the Holy Spirit as He superintended the writing. 

Point Two in the short statement of The Chicago Statement of Biblical Inerrancy states that “Holy Scripture, being God’s own Word, written by men prepared and superintended by His Spirit, is of infallible divine authority in all matters upon which it touches: it is to be believed, as God’s instruction in all that it affirms; obeyed as God’s command, in all that it requires; embraced, as God’s pledge, in all that it promises.”

In Article VII of affirmation and denial, the Chicago Statement explains: “We affirm that the inspiration was the work in which God by His Spirit, through human writers, gave us His Word. The origin of Scripture is divine. The mode of divine inspiration remains largely a mystery to us. We deny that inspiration can be reduced to human insight, or to heightened states of consciousness of any kind.”

Why could the biblical authors not be passive, without any significant and willful participation in the writing process?

How is the denial of human authorship opposition to the present various personalities and writing styles?

Did the Holy Spirit protect the Word of God from human error? Why is it not plausible that God simply dictated the writing?

So to clarify, what part did the human authors play?

God supernaturally used human authors to pen the words of the Bible, without compromising the perfection, integrity, or purity of the finished product. It’s a case of dual-authorship. “God superintended the human authors so that, using their own individual personalities, they composed and recorded, without error, His revelation to man in the words of the original manuscripts,” states Charles Ryrie in his Basic Theology. Millard Erickson notes, “The Spirit was apparently very selective in what he inspired the biblical authors to report.” Though God used men as His instruments to write Scripture, God is ultimately its author and source. 

  • John 21:25
  • 1 Thessalonians 2:13
  • 2 Peter 1:21

In 2 Peter 1:21, Peter used a specific word picture to describe this arrangement when he wrote that men moved by the Holy Spirit spoke from God. The word moved is the same word used to describe a ship moving along under the power of a blowing wind. The biblical writers were guided in their writing to go where God wanted them and to produce the exact content God wanted them to produce. 

Article VIII of the Chicago Statement reads: “We affirm that God in His Work of inspiration utilized the distinctive personalities and literary styles of the writers whom He had chosen and prepared. We deny that God, in causing these writers to use the very words that He chose, overrode their personalities.”

Without question, their personalities, writing styles, perspectives, and distinctives are reflected in their words. But their accounts are more than the words of men – they are the very Word of God. Warfield explained, “If God wished to give His people a series of letters like Paul’s, he prepared a Paul to write them, and the Paul He brought to the task was a Paul who spontaneously would write just such letters.”

Similar to Warfield’s explanation, Herman Bavnick writes, “…the Spirit’s actions in the Bible writers at the moment of the composition is the natural climax of a long process of the Spirit’s preparation of the writers through their birth, upbringing, natural gifts, research, memory, reflection, experience of life, revelation, etc.” It is clear from all this that the action of God referred to in this text cannot be translated to anything close to what is meant by the English word inspire.

Historical research lies behind Luke’s Gospel. The Spirit shaped Luke with gifts and opportunities to do this and also superintended his activity. We recognize the books of the Bible were composed in very different ways. Thus, if we want to know how any section came as God-breathed, we need to listen to the clues it gives us about the way in which it was actually written. For example, Luke 1:1-4 assumes that the writer undertook historical research, John 14:26, requires that the writer had a Spirit-assisted memory, 2 Corinthians 12:1-4 consists of miraculous revelation, the book of Ecclesiastes was written by observation of life, apocalyptic language in Revelation 2-3 was occasionally by dictation, 1 Corinthians 7:25-26 as well as 39-40 was formed with sound counsel.

  • Luke 1:1-4
  • John 14:26
  • 1 Corinthians 7:25-26 & 39-40
  • 2 Corinthians 12:1-4
  • Revelation 2-3

Considering the clues the Bible has given us about the way in which it was written, why is the truth of inspiration so important to the authority of Scripture? 

The Bible presents itself as both a divine and human book from beginning to end. “Because the Bible has been inspired, we can be confident of having divine instruction. The fact that we did not live when the revelatory events and teachings first came does not leave us spiritually or theologically deprived. We have a sure guide. And we are motivated to study it intensively, since its message is truly God’s Word to us.” Millard Erickson states in his Christian Theology. In the words of Charles Spurgeon, “A divine originality runs through it all; marks of the divine mind abound in every portion, and the Holy Spirit still inspires it all, and breathes it into the hearts of believing readers.” 

  • Exodus 34:1
  • Deuteronomy 29:29
  • Acts 17:10-11
  • 1 Corinthians 2:13
  • 2 Peter 1:21

The key distinction of inspiration/illumination is important to note. In his Pilgrim Theology, Dr. Michael Horton articulates that “Scripture is inspired – that is, God-breathed (2 Timothy 3:16), whereas our interpretation is illumined by the Spirit. Thus, Scripture is infallible and inerrant where as our interpretations as churches and as individuals are always fallible and subject to revision in the light of Scripture.” The Bible was given by means of direct revelation, having been noted in Scripture by words or expressions nearly 4,000 times. The revelation of truth is sufficient in the Bible alone. And while revelation is the communication of God’s truth to humans, inspiration relates more to the relaying of that truth from the first recipients of it to other persons (whether then, or later). In other words, revelation might be thought of as a vertical action, but inspiration must be thought of as a horizontal action. In 1 Corinthians 2:13, Paul made the point that God’s revelation came to us in words. This counters what some might contend: Inspiration only relates to the thoughts that God wanted us to know.

  • Deuteronomy 30:11-14
  • Psalm 119:130
  • Romans 1:16-17

What do people usually mean by “revelation?” Explain some differences between an orthodox Christian view and rival accounts.

How would you explain the correlation of Scripture’s inspiration and Scripture’s authority? 

In reference to Romans 1:16-17, why is the Doctrine of Inspiration of Scripture foundational for the Christian faith? 

Read Deuteronomy 30:11-14 and Psalm 119:130. Is the Bible only for Pastors or Priests? Explain.

In the words of Augustine, “When we are wrong because we haven’t understood it, we leave it in the right. When we have gone wrong, we don’t make out Scripture to be wrong, but it continues to stand up straight and right, so that we may return to it for correction.”Therefore, our understanding of the orthodox teaching of inspiration of Scripture has vast implications for the way we read and study the Bible today. A properly Christian doctrine of inspiration must derive from the doctrines that Scripture itself teaches (*). The wisdom of God in Scripture is inexhaustible.

“…the authority of God’s word resides in the written text – the words, the sentences, the paragraphs – of Scripture, not merely in our existential experience of the truth in our hearts. Some people don’t like written texts and propositions because they imply a stable fixed meaning, and people don’t want truth to be fixed. They would rather have inspiration be more subjective, more internal, more experiential. But according to 2 Peter 1:19-21, the inspiration of holy Scripture is an objective reality outside of us.” – Keven DeYoung

  • Isaiah 55:10-11
  • Psalm 12:6; 19:7 
  • Psalm 119:16, 37, 50, 93, 99-100, 105, 107, 111, 142-143, 155 & 174
  • Romans 1:16; 4:20-21
  • Hebrews 6:18
  • 2 Peter 1:19-21

According to Psalm 119, God’s Word says what is true and right, providing what is good. Explain. 

Timothy Ward penned that “…because the Spirit himself is the living God, he also preserves Scripture providentially from one generation to the next…in the present he is the one who opens minds to comprehend and hearts to trust what God says in Scripture.” 

  • Hebrews 4:12

How would you define inspiration of Scripture and the relation of the Holy Spirit to that process?

Referring to Hebrews 4:12: Do you sometimes fall into the trap of believing that hearing audible words from God would be of greater importance than listening to His words penned in the Bible?

Do you believe your present response to the words of Scripture to be appropriate?

What positive steps can you take to create and maintain the type of attitude toward Scripture and hearing from God that He would desire you to have?

The Bible never leaves us the same; we hear it for better or for worse. Apply this principle to your own Bible reading, hearing, and study. Briefly explain.

The doctrine that emerges from Inspiration of the Scriptures is this: The Holy Spirit is the divine author of all of Scripture, the only true way to hear His voice. If this doctrine is true (and it is), then the implications are so profound that every part of our lives should be affected. 

Reflect on your understanding of Inspiration of Scripture.

  • My goals for application of the inspiration of the Scriptures in my Bible reading are…
  • As a result of better understanding of inspiration versus inspiring, I hope…
  • My prayer in regard to inspiration of Scripture is…

*For the purposes of this series, future posts will briefly view inerrancy and infallibility, as well as sufficiency and authority of Scripture. In addition to these, the individual should consider a study beyond what is provided in this context of perspicuity (clarity) and the transformative power of the Scriptures.

All sources for this series are listed here: